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Medical MDMA Student Educational Slides

MDMA (3,4-Methyl-enedioxy-methamphetamine) was first synthesised in 1912 by chemists at the pharmaceutical company, Merck in Germany. In 1985, MDMA was placed in schedule 1, resulting in no research being conducted into the potential therapeutic applications of MDMA between 1985 – 2000. However, since then, MDMA has been included in over 5000 academic articles and administered to over 1100 human volunteers. (Drug Science, UK, 16.07.2020)


Pharmacological Treatment of Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Dependence: A Systematic Review.

Siefried KJ, Acheson LS, Lintzeris N, Ezard N.

CNS Drugs. 2020 Apr;34(4):337-365. doi: 10.1007/s40263-020-00711-x. 


Motivations for crystal methamphetamine-opioid co-injection/co-use amongst community-recruited people who inject drugs: a qualitative study.

Palmer, A., Scott, N., Dietze, P. et al. 

Harm Reduct J 17, 14 (2020). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00360-9


Methamphetamine use and its impact on violence laid bare in world-first study

Almost a third of middle-aged New Zealanders have tried methamphetamine at least once, according to a new University of Otago, Christchurch study looking at the link between using the drug and violence in the general population. 

The study found those who used methamphetamine at least weekly were between two and five times more likely to be involved in violence, whether it be as a victim or as the perpetrator, than those who had not used it at all. People who had used the drug once or twice were more than 60 percent more likely to be involved in violence during the same time period they were using the drug, compared with non-users. (University of Ontago, Neuseeland, 24.02.2020)


Using life course charts to assess and compare trajectories of amphetamine type stimulant consumption in different user groups: a cross-sectional study.

Martens MS, Zurhold H, Rosenkranz M, O'Donnell A, Addison M, Spencer L, McGovern W, Gabrhelík R, Petruželka B, Rowicka M, Liebregts N, Degkwitz P, Kaner E, Verthein U.

Harm Reduct J. 2020 Jan 13;17(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s12954-019-0339-x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956476/

["CrystalClean" - A German-Language Manual for Qualified Detoxification and Motivation Treatment in Cases of "Crystal Meth" Dependency - Feasibility and Acceptance].

Groß C, Schützwohl M, Mayer-Pelinski R, Hasler H, Kirchner T, Scheck A, Behrendt S, Smolka MN, Zimmermann U, Lee NK, Pilhatsch M.

Psychiatr Prax. 2020 Jan;47(1):22-28. doi: 10.1055/a-1003-5148. Epub 2020 Jan 7. German. 



Clinical effects beyond cocaine use of sustained-release dexamphetamine for the treatment of cocaine dependent patients with comorbid opioid dependence: secondary analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

Blanken P, Nuijten M, van den Brink W, Hendriks VM.

Addiction. 2019 Nov 5. doi: 10.1111/add.14874.



Atomoxetine Efficacy in Methamphetamine Dependence during Methadone Maintenance Therapy.

Rabiey A, Hassani-Abharian P, Farhad M, Moravveji AR, Akasheh G, Banafshe HR.

Arch Iran Med. 2019 Dec 1;22(12):692-698.


Crystal Methamphetamine Use in Sexual Settings Among German Men Who Have Sex With Men.

Schecke H, Lea T, Bohn A, Köhler T, Sander D, Scherbaum N, Deimel D.

Front Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 6;10:886. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00886. 


Responding to global stimulant use: challenges and opportunities.

Farrell M, Martin NK, Stockings E, Bórquez A, Cepeda JA, Degenhardt L, Ali R, Tran LT, Rehm J, Torrens M, Shoptaw S, McKetin R.

Lancet. 2019 Nov 2;394(10209):1652-1667. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32230-5. Epub 2019 Oct 23. Review. 


Gender differences in the behavioral and subjective effects of methamphetamine in healthy humans.

Mayo LM, Paul E, DeArcangelis J, Van Hedger K, de Wit H.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 Aug;236(8):2413-2423. doi: 10.1007/s00213-019-05276-2. 


Psilocybin and MDMA reduce costly punishment in the Ultimatum Game.

Gabay AS, Carhart-Harris RL, Mazibuko N, Kempton MJ, Morrison PD, Nutt DJ, Mehta MA.

Sci Rep. 2018 May 29;8(1):8236. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26656-2.


Hochdosierte Partypillen für wenig Geld: Immer mehr Wirkstoff in Ecstasytabletten

Durch den massiv zunehmenden Wirkstoffgehalt in Ecstasypillen steigt das Risiko von Überdosierungen. (taz-blog, 17.12.2019)


Freude, schöner Götterfunken: Kann das entgrenzte Glücksgefühl durch Psychedelika wie Psilocybin schwere Depressionen heilen?

Berlin – Das Erlebnis einer „ozeanischen Selbstentgrenzung“ durch eine hohe Dosis Psilocybin spült die Symptome einer Major Depression fort – und das für mehrere Monate: Das klingt geradezu nach Magie. Nicht ohne Grund werden wohl die Pilze, die den halluzinogenen Wirkstoff enthalten, auch „Magic Mushrooms“ genannt. (Medscape, Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Nervenheilkunde (DGPPN) 2019, 06.12.2019)


LiMA: a study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

Ezard N, Dunlop A, Hall M, Ali R, McKetin R, Bruno R, Phung N, Carr A, White J, Clifford B, Liu Z, Shanahan M, Dolan K, Baker AL, Lintzeris N.

BMJ Open. 2018 Jul 19;8(7):e020723. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020723.


Breakthrough for Trauma Treatment: Safety and Efficacy of MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Compared to Paroxetine and Sertraline

Allison A. Feduccia, Lisa Jerome, Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Amy Emerson, Michael C. Mithoefer and Rick Doblin

Front. Psychiatry, 12 September 2019, doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00650 


Pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine/amphetamine use disorder—a systematic review and meta‐analysis.

Chan, B., Freeman, M., Kondo, K., Ayers, C., Montgomery, J., Paynter, R., and Kansagara, D. ( 2019)

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.14755, First published: 22 July 2019



Prenatal Exposure to Methamphetamine: Up-Regulation of Brain Receptor Genes.

Zoubková H, Tomášková A, Nohejlová K, Černá M, Šlamberová R.

Front Neurosci. 2019 Aug 1;13:771. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00771.


ADHS: Verändert Methylphenidat die Hirnentwicklung von Kindern?

Amsterdam – Die Behandlung mit Methylphenidat, dem Standardmedikament für die Aufmerksamkeits-Defizit-Hyperaktivitäts-Störung, hat in einer randomisierten kontrollier­ten Studie in Radiology (2019; DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2019182528) bei Jungen, nicht aber bei männlichen Erwachsenen, zu Veränderungen in der Magnetresonanztomografie (MRT) geführt, die auf strukturelle Veränderungen des Gehirns hindeuten. Die klinische Bedeutung der Befunde ist unklar. (aerzteblatt.de, 14.08.2019)


DHS. Methamphetamin

Die Sucht und ihre Stoffe: Eine Informationsreihe über die gebräuchlichsten Drogen und Suchtsubstanzen. (DHS – Deutsche Hauptstelle für Suchtfragen, 2019)


Treatment of amphetamine abuse/use disorder: a systematic review of a recent health concern.

Khoramizadeh M, Effatpanah M, Mostaghimi A, Rezaei M, Mahjoub A, Shishehgar S.

Daru. 2019 Jun 21. doi: 10.1007/s40199-019-00282-3. 


MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD: study design and rationale for phase 3 trials based on pooled analysis of six phase 2 randomized controlled trials

Mithoefer, M.C., Feduccia, A.A., Jerome, L. et al. 

Psychopharmacology (2019). doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05249-5


Acute Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Negative Emotion Processing.

Schmidt A, Müller F, Dolder PC, Schmid Y, Zanchi D, Egloff L, Liechti ME, Borgwardt S.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Apr 1;21(4):345-354. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyx112.


Oxytocin receptor gene variations and socio-emotional effects of MDMA: A pooled analysis of controlled studies in healthy subjects. Vizeli P, Liechti ME (2018) 

PLoS ONE 13(6): e0199384. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199384


Bangla Desh. Yaba: The cheap synthetic drug convulsing a nation

Hundreds of thousands of people in Bangladesh have become hooked on yaba - a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine sold as cheap red or pink pills. The official response has been harsh, with hundreds of people killed in alleged incidents of "crossfire". (BBC, 25.04.2019)


MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD: Are memory reconsolidation and fear extinction underlying mechanisms?

Feduccia AA, Mithoefer MC.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Jun 8;84(Pt A):221-228. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.03.003.


Neuroimaging of chronic MDMA ("ecstasy") effects: A meta-analysis.

Müller F, Brändle R, Liechti ME, Borgwardt S.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Jan;96:10-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.11.004.


Pharmacotherapy for Stimulant Use Disorders: A Systematic Review [Internet].

Chan B, Kondo K, Ayers C, Freeman M, Montgomery J, Paynter R, Kansagara D.

Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2018 Aug.


Latent Psychotic Symptom Profiles Amongst People Who Use Methamphetamine: What Do They Tell Us About Existing Diagnostic Categories?

McKetin R, Voce A, Burns R, Ali R, Lubman DI, Baker AL, Castle DJ.

Front Psychiatry. 2018 Nov 19;9:578. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00578.