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Crack cocaine and dreams: the view of users.

Silva TRD, Nappo SA.

Cien Saude Colet. 2019 Mar;24(3):1091-1099. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232018243.05072017. Portuguese, English. 

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232019000301091&lng=pt&tlng=pt

Cognitive functions of subjects with cocaine and crack dependency disorder during early abstinence.

Alonso-Matias L, Reyes-Zamorano E, Gonzalez-Olvera JJ.

Rev Neurol. 2019 Apr 1;68(7):271-280. doi: 10.33588/rn.6807.2018119. Spanish, English. 

https://www.neurologia.com/articulo/2018119/eng

Expectation effects on brain dopamine responses to methylphenidate in cocaine use disorder.

Wang GJ, Wiers CE, Shumay E, Tomasi D, Yuan K, Wong CT, Logan J, Fowler JS, Volkow ND.

Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Feb 15;9(1):93. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0421-x.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377670/

Pharmacotherapy for Stimulant Use Disorders: A Systematic Review [Internet].

Chan B, Kondo K, Ayers C, Freeman M, Montgomery J, Paynter R, Kansagara D.

Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2018 Aug.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536789/

Schweiz. Gibt es einen Kokain-Genusskonsum?

Lars Stark, ARUD, Zürich, Konferenz Nightlife-und Freizeitdrogenkonsum, Luzern, 24.01.2019

https://www.infodrog.ch/files/content/nightlife/de/konferenz2019/praesentationen/ws2b-stark-freizeitdrogenkonsum-neubad19.pdf

Schweiz. Ist risikoarmer Kokainkonsum möglich?

Boris B. Quednow, Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology,Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and PsychosomaticsPsychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich

Konferenz Nightlife-und Freizeitdrogenkonsum, Luzern, 24.01.2019

https://www.infodrog.ch/files/content/nightlife/de/konferenz2019/praesentationen/ws2a-quednow-freizeitdrogenkonsum-neubad19.pdf

USA. Fentanyl in cocaine: The deadly truth of new drugs cocktail (Video)

The US government has warned that a surge in cocaine deaths is being exacerbated by the presence of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid 80-100 times stronger than morphine. (BBC, 26.11.2018, Video, 09:55)

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-46350497/fentanyl-in-cocaine-the-deadly-truth-of-new-drugs-cocktail

Cocaine-Induced Electrocardiographic Phenomenon.

Kumar S, Sanchez L, Srinivasamurthy R, Mathias PF.

Tex Heart Inst J. 2018 Aug 1;45(4):273-274. doi: 10.14503/THIJ-18-6722. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6183626/

Cognitive and neuroanatomical impairments associated with chronic exposure to levamisole-contaminated cocaine

Matthias Vonmoos, Sarah Hirsiger, Katrin H. Preller, Lea M. Hulka, Daniel Allemann, Marcus Herdener, Markus R. Baumgartner & Boris B. Quednow 

Translational Psychiatry volume 8, Article number: 235 (2018) 

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-018-0279-3

Kokainstreckmittel steht im Verdacht, Hirnschäden zu verursachen

Wer regelmässig Kokain konsumiert, das mit dem Tierentwurmungsmittel Levamisol gestreckt wurde, zeigt schlechtere kognitive Leistungen und verfügt über eine dünnere Hirnrinde. Dies geht aus zwei aktuellen Studien der Universität Zürich hervor. Die Forschenden schliessen daraus, dass Levamisol neurotoxisch wirken könnte und plädieren für den Ausbau sogenannter Drug-Checking-Programme. (Universität Zürich, 31.10.2018)

https://idw-online.de/de/news705081

Topiramate for the Treatment of Dually Dependent on Opiates and Cocaine: A Single-center Placebo-controlled Trial.

Pirnia B, Soleimani AA, Malekanmehr P, Pirnia K, Zahiroddin A.

Iran J Public Health. 2018 Sep;47(9):1345-1353.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6174034/

Speed limits - HARM REDUCTION FOR PEOPLE WHO USE STIMULANTS

Rafaela Rigoni, Joost Breeksema and Sara Woods

Mainline, Niederlande, 2018

Supported by the Global Partnership on Drug Policies and Development (GPDPD) implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).

http://fileserver.idpc.net/library/Mainline_REPORT_complete.pdf

Cocaine.

Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK501588/

Irland. Cocaine – Reduce the Harms

Ireland ranks fourth highest in EU for use of cocaine among young adults

Minister Catherine Byrne launches new awareness campaign

In light of an upward trend in cocaine use and cocaine-associated deaths in Ireland, a new campaign has been developed by the Ana Liffey Drug Project (ALDP) and the HSE to raise awareness about the dangers of using cocaine (powder and crack), and how to reduce the harms associated with snorting, smoking or injecting cocaine. The campaign was launched today, Tuesday 17th July, by Minister Catherine Byrne. (Health Service Executive, Irland, 17.07.2018)

https://www.hse.ie/eng/services/news/media/pressrel/cocaine-reduce-the-harms.html

Effects of environmental cocaine concentrations on the skeletal muscle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

Anna Capaldo, Flaminia GayMarilena Lepretti, Gaetana PaolellaStefania MartuccielloLillà Lionetti, Ivana Caputo, Vincenza Laforgia

Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 640–641, 1 November 2018, Pages 862-873, doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.357

Abstract

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969718320084

Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of cocaine addiction: evidence to date.

Bolloni C, Badas P, Corona G, Diana M.

Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2018 May 21;9:11-21. doi: 10.2147/SAR.S161206.

https://www.dovepress.com/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-cocaine-addicti-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-SAR

Efficient Syntheses of Cocaine Vaccines and Their in Vivo Evaluation.

Kimishima A, Olson ME, Natori Y, Janda KD.

ACS Med Chem Lett. 2018 Apr 16;9(5):411-416. doi: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00051.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949726/

Cocaine Safer Use Guide

How much cocaine should I take? Should I snort cocaine? How long does cocaine take to kick in? Can I mix cocaine with alcohol? How often is too often to use cocaine?

There are no definitive answers to these questions, but this graphic highlights some good things to consider when using cocaine. (Talking Drugs, UK, 2018)

https://www.talkingdrugs.org/safer-drug-use-guides/cocaine1

Crack cocaine users views regarding treatment with contingency management in Brazil

André Q. C. Miguel, Clarice S. Madruga, Viviane Simões, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Claudio J. da Silva, Renata R. Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M. Roll, Jair J. Mari and Ronaldo R. Laranjeira

Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy2018, 13:7, doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0144-7

https://substanceabusepolicy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13011-018-0144-7

A two-week pilot study of intranasal oxytocin for cocaine-dependent individuals receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder.

Stauffer CS, Musinipally V, Suen A, Lynch KL, Shapiro B, Woolley JD.

Addict Res Theory. 2016;24(6):490-498. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2016.1173682.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424696/

Oxytocin protocol appears workable and safe for methadone patients who use cocaine

Some 30 to 60 percent of patients in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for opioid use disorders use cocaine. Compared to other MMT patients, those who use cocaine have higher rates of relapse and mortality. Studies with animals have suggested that the hormone oxytocin could be doubly helpful to these patients, by reducing the addictive effects of both opioids and cocaine. Now, researchers supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse have developed a protocol for adjunctive oxytocin treatment, and a pilot study has indicated that it is workable and safe for MMT patients. (NIDA, Science Highlight, 09.01.2018)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/latest-science/oxytocin-protocol-appears-workable-safe-methadone-patients-who-use-cocaine

Why Females Are More Sensitive to Cocaine

This research:

Examined why females are more sensitive than males to the rewarding and motivational effects of stimulant drugs.

Demonstrated that the female hormone estradiol is responsible for the increased sensitivity.

Identified two signaling pathways—mGluR5 and the cannabinoid CB1R pathways—through which estradiol mediates enhanced escalation of drug administration and greater euphoria in females. (NIDA Notes, 03.08.2017)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2017/08/why-females-are-more-sensitive-to-cocaine

Cebranopadol, a Mixed Opioid Agonist, Reduces Cocaine Self-administration through Nociceptin Opioid and Mu Opioid Receptors.

Shen Q, Deng Y, Ciccocioppo R, Cannella N.

Front Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 13;8:234. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00234.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693905/

NASHVILLE — For the first time, Tennessee Bureau of Investigation scientists have detected fentanyl, a potentially deadly narcotic, mixed in with samples of cocaine. (USA Today, 20.10.2017)

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/10/20/why-cocaine-cut-fentanyl-changes-game/786295001/

Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.

Konova AB, Parvaz MA, Bernstein V, Zilverstand A, Moeller SJ, Delgado MR, Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ.

Addict Biol. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1111/adb.12545.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872745

Persons addicted to cocaine often find that the drug is much less enjoyable after years of use, yet they have great difficulty quitting. A new brain imaging study shows why this may be so and also why extinction-based therapy may not be effective for cocaine users.

The study, led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, found that in long-term cocaine users, there is global impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), an area of the brain that is linked to impulse and self-control. (Medscape, 15.09.2017)

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/885727

Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.

Guimarães RA, da Silva LN, França DD, Del-Rios NH, Carneiro MA, Teles SA.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):628-34. doi: 10.1590/0104-1169.0077.2597.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623725/

Assessment of inhibitory control in crack and/or cocaine users: a systematic review.

Czermainski FR, Willhelm AR, Santos ÁZ, Pachado MP, de Almeida RMM.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2017 Aug 14:0. doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0043.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2237-60892017005004101

Authorities in the northern Spanish city of Bilbao are distributing cards for people to crush cocaine with prior to snorting, in a bid to reduce the potential harms of nasal drug use – including the spread of hepatitis C. (Talking Drugs, UK, 12.09.2017)

http://www.talkingdrugs.org/spanish-authorities-providing-free-cocaine-crushing-cards