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Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2006-.


Irland. Cocaine – Reduce the Harms

Ireland ranks fourth highest in EU for use of cocaine among young adults

Minister Catherine Byrne launches new awareness campaign

In light of an upward trend in cocaine use and cocaine-associated deaths in Ireland, a new campaign has been developed by the Ana Liffey Drug Project (ALDP) and the HSE to raise awareness about the dangers of using cocaine (powder and crack), and how to reduce the harms associated with snorting, smoking or injecting cocaine. The campaign was launched today, Tuesday 17th July, by Minister Catherine Byrne. (Health Service Executive, Irland, 17.07.2018)


Authorities in the northern Spanish city of Bilbao are distributing cards for people to crush cocaine with prior to snorting, in a bid to reduce the potential harms of nasal drug use – including the spread of hepatitis C. (Talking Drugs, UK, 12.09.2017)


Effects of environmental cocaine concentrations on the skeletal muscle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

Anna Capaldo, Flaminia GayMarilena Lepretti, Gaetana PaolellaStefania MartuccielloLillà Lionetti, Ivana Caputo, Vincenza Laforgia

Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 640–641, 1 November 2018, Pages 862-873, doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.357



Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.

Konova, A. B., Parvaz, M. A., Bernstein, V., Zilverstand, A., Moeller, S. J., Delgado, M. R., Alia-Klein, N., and Goldstein, R. Z. (2017)

Addiction Biology, doi: 10.1111/adb.12545.



Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of cocaine addiction: evidence to date.

Bolloni C, Badas P, Corona G, Diana M.

Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2018 May 21;9:11-21. doi: 10.2147/SAR.S161206.


Cocaine-addicted individuals say they find the drug much less enjoyable after years of use, but they have great difficulty quitting. A new brain imaging study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai reveals why this might be so, as well as why a common psychological therapy may not work in addicted cocaine users. (The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 11.09.2017)


Efficient Syntheses of Cocaine Vaccines and Their in Vivo Evaluation.

Kimishima A, Olson ME, Natori Y, Janda KD.

ACS Med Chem Lett. 2018 Apr 16;9(5):411-416. doi: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00051.


"I love having benzos after my coke shot": The use of psychotropic medication among cocaine users in downtown Montreal.

Motta-Ochoa R, Bertrand K, Arruda N, Jutras-Aswad D, Roy É.

Int J Drug Policy. 2017 Aug 18;49:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.012.



Cocaine Safer Use Guide

How much cocaine should I take? Should I snort cocaine? How long does cocaine take to kick in? Can I mix cocaine with alcohol? How often is too often to use cocaine?

There are no definitive answers to these questions, but this graphic highlights some good things to consider when using cocaine. (Talking Drugs, UK, 2018)


Cocaine adulteration.

Kudlacek O, Hofmaier T, Luf A, Mayer FP, Stockner T, Nagy C, Holy M, Freissmuth M, Schmid R, Sitte HH.

J Chem Neuroanat. 2017 Jun 12. pii: S0891-0618(17)30003-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017.06.001.



Crack cocaine users views regarding treatment with contingency management in Brazil

André Q. C. Miguel, Clarice S. Madruga, Viviane Simões, Rodolfo Yamauchi, Claudio J. da Silva, Renata R. Abdalla, Michael McDonell, Sterling McPherson, John M. Roll, Jair J. Mari and Ronaldo R. Laranjeira

Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy2018, 13:7, doi.org/10.1186/s13011-018-0144-7


Buprenorphine requires concomitant activation of NOP and MOP receptors to reduce cocaine consumption.

Kallupi M, Shen Q, de Guglielmo G, Yasuda D, Journigan VB, Zaveri NT, Ciccocioppo R.

Addict Biol. 2017 Jun 21. doi: 10.1111/adb.12513.



A two-week pilot study of intranasal oxytocin for cocaine-dependent individuals receiving methadone maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder.

Stauffer CS, Musinipally V, Suen A, Lynch KL, Shapiro B, Woolley JD.

Addict Res Theory. 2016;24(6):490-498. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2016.1173682.


In 2016, 37 percent of overdose deaths involved cocaine and fentanyl without heroin, up from 11 percent in 2015

Last year more than 1,300 New Yorkers died of a drug overdose, and nearly half (44 percent) of those deaths involved fentanyl. (New York City Health Department, 01.06.2017)


Oxytocin protocol appears workable and safe for methadone patients who use cocaine

Some 30 to 60 percent of patients in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for opioid use disorders use cocaine. Compared to other MMT patients, those who use cocaine have higher rates of relapse and mortality. Studies with animals have suggested that the hormone oxytocin could be doubly helpful to these patients, by reducing the addictive effects of both opioids and cocaine. Now, researchers supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse have developed a protocol for adjunctive oxytocin treatment, and a pilot study has indicated that it is workable and safe for MMT patients. (NIDA, Science Highlight, 09.01.2018)


Education and equipment for people who smoke crack cocaine in Canada: progress and limits

Carol Strike and Tara Marie Watson

Harm Reduction Journal 2017 14:17, DOI: 10.1186/s12954-017-0144-3


Why Females Are More Sensitive to Cocaine

This research:

Examined why females are more sensitive than males to the rewarding and motivational effects of stimulant drugs.

Demonstrated that the female hormone estradiol is responsible for the increased sensitivity.

Identified two signaling pathways—mGluR5 and the cannabinoid CB1R pathways—through which estradiol mediates enhanced escalation of drug administration and greater euphoria in females. (NIDA Notes, 03.08.2017)


Cocaine Cue-Induced Dopamine Release in Recreational Cocaine Users.

Cox SML, Yau Y, Larcher K, Durand F, Kolivakis T, Delaney JS, Dagher A, Benkelfat C, Leyton M.

Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 26;7:46665. doi: 10.1038/srep46665.


Cebranopadol, a Mixed Opioid Agonist, Reduces Cocaine Self-administration through Nociceptin Opioid and Mu Opioid Receptors.

Shen Q, Deng Y, Ciccocioppo R, Cannella N.

Front Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 13;8:234. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00234.


Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.

Konova AB, Parvaz MA, Bernstein V, Zilverstand A, Moeller SJ, Delgado MR, Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ.

Addict Biol. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1111/adb.12545.



Association of Stimulant Use With Dopaminergic Alterations in Users of Cocaine, Amphetamine, or Methamphetamine - A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ashok AH, Mizuno Y, Volkow ND, Howes OD. JAMA Psychiatry. 2017;74(5):511-519. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0135



NASHVILLE — For the first time, Tennessee Bureau of Investigation scientists have detected fentanyl, a potentially deadly narcotic, mixed in with samples of cocaine. (USA Today, 20.10.2017)


Modafinil Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sangroula D, Motiwala F, Wagle B, Shah VC, Hagi K, Lippmann S.

Subst Use Misuse. 2017 Mar 28:1-15. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2016.1276597.



Persons addicted to cocaine often find that the drug is much less enjoyable after years of use, yet they have great difficulty quitting. A new brain imaging study shows why this may be so and also why extinction-based therapy may not be effective for cocaine users.

The study, led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, found that in long-term cocaine users, there is global impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), an area of the brain that is linked to impulse and self-control. (Medscape, 15.09.2017)


Acupuncture reduces relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior via activation of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area.

Jin W, Kim MS, Jang EY, Lee JY, Lee JG, Kim HY, Yoon SS, Lee BH, Chang S, Kim JH, Choi KH, Koo H, Gwak YS, Steffensen SC, Ryu YH, Kim HY, Yang CH.

Addict Biol. 2017 Mar 7. doi: 10.1111/adb.12499.



Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.

Guimarães RA, da Silva LN, França DD, Del-Rios NH, Carneiro MA, Teles SA.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):628-34. doi: 10.1590/0104-1169.0077.2597.


In this study, researchers demonstrated the rapid passage of cocaine through the brain, and showed that the intensity of the volunteers' cocaine “high” parallels the trajectory of cocaine levels in the brain. (NIDA Notes animations, Oktober 2014, 02:02)


Assessment of inhibitory control in crack and/or cocaine users: a systematic review.

Czermainski FR, Willhelm AR, Santos ÁZ, Pachado MP, de Almeida RMM.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2017 Aug 14:0. doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0043.