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Dead Space in Syringes Explained

A short film explaining the importance of dead space as a factor in the transmission of blood borne viruses amongst people who inject drugs. (exchangesupplies.org, UK, 08.06.2022, Video, 03:49) 


Setting foot in private spaces: extending the hepatitis C cascade of care to automatic needle/syringe dispensing machines, a mixed methods study. 

Coupland, H., Henderson, C., Pritchard-Jones, J. et al.

Harm Reduct J 19, 56 (2022). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-022-00640-6


Irland. Aggression caused by crack cocaine forces Limerick pharmacists to quit needle exchange programme 

Drugs and Alcohol Forum responds after councillor highlights fall in the number of pharmacies offering needle exchange. Irish Examiner, Irland, 21.04.2022)


Neuseeland. Needle Exchange Programme Doubles Its Economic Return 

New research shows that the New Zealand Needle Exchange Programme (NZNEP) has doubled its economic return to our public health system over the last 20 years.

The programme cost $5.88 million to run in 2021. Without the programme, our public health system could have expected costs in 2021 of $39.9 million to treat viral blood-borne diseases such as HIV or hepatitis B and C and, injecting related injuries

This equates to $6.79 in benefits for every dollar spent on the programme. (Needle Exchange NZ, Neusseland, 12.04.2022)


Smart Syringe Vending Machines: Research Capabilities and Implications for Research Data Collection

David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Tamar Mgebrishvili, Ada Beselia, Mzia Tabatadze, Nikoloz Otiashvili, Allison J. Ober, and Martin Y. Iguchi

Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 2021 82:6, 752-757 


Could 30 years of political controversy on needle exchange programmes in Sweden contribute to scaling-up harm reduction services in the world? 

Karlsson N, Berglund T, Ekström AM, Hammarberg A, Tammi T. 

Nordisk Alkohol Nark. 2021 Feb;38(1):66-88. doi: 10.1177/1455072520965013. Epub 2020 Dec 17. PMID: 35309093; PMCID: PMC8899060.


Substance Use, Hospitalizations, and Co-Occurring Disorders among Patients Transferred from a Needle Exchange Program to Opioid Maintenance Treatment. 

Bråbäck M, Brantefors A, Franck J, Brådvik L, Isendahl P, Nilsson S, Troberg K, Håkansson A. 

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 8;19(2):697. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19020697. PMID: 35055519; PMCID: PMC8775654.


UK. Scoping project: A peer-based needle exchange service in London

Joint Working Group on Substance Use and Hepatitis C, UK, Januar 2022


A qualitative study on pharmacy policies toward over-the-counter syringe sales in a rural epicenter of US drug-related epidemics. 

Fadanelli, M., Cooper, H.L.F., Freeman, P.R. et al.

Harm Reduct J 19, 1 (2022). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00569-2


Is your syringe services program cost-saving to society? A methodological case study. 

Des Jarlais, D.C., Feelemyer, J., McKnight, C. et al.

Harm Reduct J 18, 126 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00575-4


Correlates of sharing of needles and syringes among people who inject drugs in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. 

Hemel MM, Reza MM, Shafiq TK, Kabir MI, Rana AM, Khan SI. 

J Infect Dev Ctries. 2021 Oct 31;15(10):1497-1506. doi: 10.3855/jidc.13629. PMID: 34780373.


Implementation and first-year operating costs of an academic medical center-based syringe services program. 

Bartholomew, T.S., Patel, H., McCollister, K. et al.

Harm Reduct J 18, 116 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00563-8


Assessing the relationship between syringe exchange, pharmacy, and street sources of accessing syringes and injection drug use behavior in a pooled nationally representative sample of people who inject drugs in the United States from 2002 to 2019. 

Marotta, P.L., Stringer, K., Beletsky, L. et al.

Harm Reduct J 18, 115 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00565-6


Australien. The Bulletin - Vol. 18, ed. 4, November 2021

The Bulletin is a specialty publication for frontline workers in Australia’s Needle and Syringe programs (NSPs).

Herausgeber: Penington Institute, Australien


Syringe Services Programs' Role in Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.: Why We Cannot Do It Without Them. 

Broz D, Carnes N, Chapin-Bardales J, Des Jarlais DC, Handanagic S, Jones CM, McClung RP, Asher AK. 

Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5 Suppl 1):S118-S129. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.05.044. PMID: 34686281.


USA. CEQA lawsuits are blocking needle exchange programs. A new law will stop that 

SANTA CRUZ — For more than 30 years, public health officials and nonprofits in California have provided clean hypodermic needles to people who use them to inject drugs.

For nearly that entire time, opponents have accused the free needle programs of promoting drug use and homelessness.

But recently, opponents have deployed a novel strategy to shut them down: using environmental regulations to sue over needle waste. They argue that contaminated needles pollute parks and waterways — and their lawsuits have succeeded across the state. (Los Angeles Times, USA, 06.10.2021)


UK. Needle and Syringe Provision: Minimum Standards Checklist 

Minimum Standards for Needle Syringe Programme (NSP) Across Humankind These minimum standards must be used in conjunction with locally commissioned service level arrangements (e.g. for community pharmacy provision) documents where appropriate. They are to be used to improve coverage, reduce the risk of needle finds, and ensure consistent high-quality delivery of NSP within services and outreach provision across Humankind, including via mobile units and sub-contracted Pharmacies. These standards help to ensure that individuals receive a service based on harm reduction principles from well informed and responsive staff and volunteers, regardless of where they are in their recovery journey. (Humankind, UK, 2021)


Creativity, care and ‘messy’ drug use: A collective history of the early days of peer-led needle exchange in Dunedin, New Zealand


International Journal of Drug Policy, Available online 19 August 2021, 103386, doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103386



USA. As Overdoses Soar, This State’s Largest Needle Exchange Is Being Evicted

Syringe-access sites have been proven to reduce opioid overdoses and curb disease. New Jersey is about to shut down its biggest one. (New York Times, 11.08.2021)


“We're actually more of a likely ally than an unlikely ally”: relationships between syringe services programs and law enforcement. 

Franco, C.Y., Lee-Winn, A.E., Brandspigel, S. et al. 

Harm Reduct J 18, 81 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00515-2


Injections and infections: understanding syringe service program utilization in a rural state.

Thakarar, K., Sankar, N., Murray, K. et al.

Harm Reduct J 18, 74 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00524-1


USA. Atlantic City is poised to shut down its syringe exchange — amid warnings of dire public health consequences

Founded after years of high HIV rates in Atlantic City, Oasis was New Jersey’s first needle exchange, and is still its largest, serving some 1,200 clients. (The Philadelphia Inquirer, USA, 12.07.2021)


USA. A CDC Investigation Says West Virginia Needs Needle Exchanges — Which The State Outlawed — To Stop Its HIV Outbreak

A CDC investigation obtained by BuzzFeed News shows “low-barrier” needle exchanges are needed to stop an HIV outbreak in West Virginia. “There's a lot of suffering documented in this,” one expert said. (BuzzFeed, USA, 06.ß7.2021)


Schottland. Vending machines for drug users ‘can save lives’

Innovative projects aim to reduce the number of people dying from drugs in Scotland.

Vending machines providing clean drug-injecting equipment have been installed at homeless shelters in a bid to reduce the number of deaths. (stv News, UK, 21.07.2021)


Factors that influence enrollment in syringe services programs in rural areas: a qualitative study among program clients in Appalachian Kentucky. 

Ibragimov U, Cooper KE, Batty E, Ballard AM, Fadanelli M, Gross SB, Klein EM, Lockard S, Young AM, Cooper HLF. 

Harm Reduct J. 2021 Jun 30;18(1):68. doi: 10.1186/s12954-021-00518-z. PMID: 34193165; PMCID: PMC8244225.


The effect of needle and syringe program and opioid agonist therapy on the risk of HIV, hepatitis B and C virus infection for people who inject drugs in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: findings from an emulated target trial. 

van Santen, D. K., Anders, B., Matser, A., Maher, L., Hickman, M., Lodi, S., and Prins, M. (2021) Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15503. 



NRW. Umfrage zur Abfrage von Einmalspritzen in den Jahren 2018 bis 2020 

50.000 Spritzenpäckchen wurden 2020 zusätzlich mit der doppelten Menge an Spritzen bestückt. (Safer Use NRW, Stand Februar 2021)


Syringe Distribution Programs Can Improve Public Health During the Opioid Overdose Crisis 

Such initiatives can reduce overdose rates and infectious disease, increase use of treatment

Pew Trust, USA, Issue Brief March 2, 2021


USA. Ensuring Access to Clean Needles Can Save Lives, but Legal Barriers Persist

The United States continues to experience an unprecedented level of drug-related harm. While the failure to prevent this harm is most notable in the number of overdose deaths, which are now at their highest level on record, it is evident in other areas as well. Of particular importance from a policy perspective, bloodborne disease infections related to syringe sharing are also on the rise, with recent outbreaks in Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Indiana, among other states. Cases of infective endocarditis, which is caused largely by unsafe injection, are increasing as well. (The Network for Public Health Law, USA, 05.02.2021)


More evidence or stronger political will: exploring the feasibility of needle and syringe programs in Ukrainian prisons. 

Dmitrieva, A., Stepanov, V., Svyrydova, K. et al.

Harm Reduct J 18, 10 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00459-z