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USA. Allowing Pharmacists to Directly Dispense Opioid Antidote Can Sharply Cut Opioid Overdose Deaths

Allowing pharmacists to dispense the opioid antidote naloxone without a physician's prescription can sharply reduce the incidence of fatal opioid-related overdoses, according to a new RAND Corporation study.

States that adopted such laws saw fatal opioid overdoses fall by an average of 27 percent during the second year following passage and 34 percent in subsequent years, according to the study published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine. (RAND, USA, 06.05.2019)

https://www.rand.org/news/press/2019/05/06.html

Does Take-Home Naloxone Availability Increase Opioid Use?.

Tas, B., Humphreys, K., McDonald, R., and Strang, J. ( 2019) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.14637.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/add.14637

USA. FDA approves first generic naloxone nasal spray to treat opioid overdose

Agency is also taking new steps to support development of over-the-counter and additional generics of naloxone to help reduce opioid overdose deaths, increase access to emergency treatment. (FDA – US Fodd and Drug Administration, 19.04.2019)

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-approves-first-generic-naloxone-nasal-spray-treat-opioid-overdose

Evidence-Based Guidelines for EMS Administration of Naloxone.

Williams K, Lang ES, Panchal A, Gasper JJ, Taillac P, Gouda J, Hedges M.

Prehosp Emerg Care. 2019 Mar 29:1-41. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2019.1597955. 

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10903127.2019.1597955

Comparative Human Factors Evaluation of Two Nasal Naloxone Administration Devices: NARCAN® Nasal Spray and Naloxone Prefilled Syringe with Nasal Atomizer.

Tippey KG, Yovanoff M, McGrath LS, Sneeringer P.

Pain Ther. 2019 Mar 15. doi: 10.1007/s40122-019-0118-0. 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40122-019-0118-0

Intranasal naloxone rapidly occupies brain mu-opioid receptors in human subjects.

Johansson J, Hirvonen J, Lovró Z, Ekblad L, Kaasinen V, Rajasilta O, Helin S, Tuisku J, Sirén S, Pennanen M, Agrawal A, Crystal R, Vainio PJ, Alho H, Scheinin M.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/s41386-019-0368-x. 

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30867551

Evaluation and optimization of take-home naloxone in an academic medical center.

Cooler J, Ross CA, Robert S, Linder L, Ruhe AM, Philip A.

Ment Health Clin. 2019 Mar 1;9(2):105-109. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2019.03.105.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398357/

USA. Next-generation single-dose antidotes for opioid overdoses.

American Chemical Society. (ScienceDaily, USA, 31.03.2019)

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/03/190331192537.htm

Opioid Overdose Reversal News: FDA-approved naloxone devices produce substantially higher blood levels of naloxone than improvised nasal spray

(...) A new study looked at how well the FDA-approved nasal spray and autoinjector compared to the improvised nasal devices, which are not FDA-approved. Scientists found that the approved naloxone devices deliver higher blood levels of naloxone than the improvised nasal devices. In fact, levels in the plasma concentration of naloxone are considerably lower when improvised devices are used. The FDA-approved 4-mg dose nasal spray produced the highest blood level of naloxone of all the products tested. (NIDA, USA, 15.03.2019)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2019/03/opioid-overdose-reversal-news-fda-approved-naloxone-devices-produce-substantially-higher-blood

Heroin body-packing and naloxone

Vahabzadeh, Maryam et al.

The Lancet , Volume 393 , Issue 10177 , e35 

(Registrierung erforderlich)

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30502-1/fulltext

The effects of heat and freeze-thaw cycling on naloxone stability

Dulcie Lai, Amy Trinh Pham, Praveen P. Nekkar Rao and Michael A. Beazely 

Harm Reduction Journal 2019, 16:17, doi.org/10.1186/s12954-019-0288-4

https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12954-019-0288-4

Kratom (Mitragynine) Ingestion Requiring Naloxone Reversal.

Overbeek DL, Abraham J, Munzer BW.

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med. 2019 Jan 4;3(1):24-26. doi: 10.5811/cpcem.2018.11.40588.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366391/

A novel naloxone training compared with current recommended training in an overdose simulation.

Franko TS 2nd, Distefano D, Lewis L.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019 Feb 8. pii: S1544-3191(18)30590-9. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2018.12.022.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30745190

Elective Naloxone-Induced Opioid Withdrawal for Rapid Initiation of Medication-Assisted Treatment of Opioid Use Disorder.

Phillips RH, Salzman M, Haroz R, Rafeq R, Mazzarelli AJ, Pelletier-Bui A.

Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Feb 14. pii: S0196-0644(19)30006-X. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.01.006.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30773411

Higher doses of naloxone are needed in the synthetic opiod era

Ronald B. Moss and Dennis J. Carlo

Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 2019, 14:6, doi.org/10.1186/s13011-019-0195-4

https://substanceabusepolicy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13011-019-0195-4

USA. FDA may recommend overdose reversal drug alongside opioid prescriptions

In a growing number of states, patients who get opioids for serious pain may leave their doctors' offices with a second prescription -- for naloxone, a drug that can save their lives if they overdose on the powerful painkillers. (CNN, USA, 20.02.2019)

https://edition.cnn.com/2019/02/20/health/opioids-naloxone-prescriptions-partner/index.html

Pharmacokinetics of a novel, approved, 1.4 mg intranasal naloxone formulation for reversal of opioid overdose - a randomised controlled trial.

Skulberg AK, Åsberg A, Khiabani HZ, Røstad H, Tylleskar I, Dale O.

Addiction. 2019 Jan 14. doi: 10.1111/add.14552.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30644628

Take-home naloxone: a life saver in opioid overdose

The Lancet , Volume 393 , Issue 10169 , 296 

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)30153-9/fulltext

Scotland's National Naloxone Programme

Bird, Sheila M et al.

The Lancet , Volume 393 , Issue 10169 , 316 - 318 

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(18)33065-4/fulltext

USA. FDA Takes Step to Allow Drug Companies to Sell Naloxone Without Prescription

USA. FDA Takes Step to Allow Drug ComThe U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has taken a step to make it easier for companies that make the opioid overdose antidote naloxone to sell the drug without a prescription, CNBC reports. Making naloxone available over-the-counter would lower costs and increase consumer access, the agency said. (drugfree.org, USA, 24.01.2019)

https://drugfree.org/learn/drug-and-alcohol-news/fda-takes-step-to-allow-drug-companies-to-sell-naloxone-without-prescription

USA. Design team creates a naloxone dispenser

(...) Claudia B. Rebola, graduate studies coordinator in UC's College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), designed a device to make naloxone more accessible to those in need. Her intent is to bring a model she helped create first in Providence, Rhode Island, to spaces in Cincinnati by spring.

An associate professor in DAAP's Myron E. Ullman, Jr. School of Design, Rebola has worked with graduate students to create AntiOD, a naloxone-dispensing smart device installed in semi-public places with step-by-step instructions for bystanders. Looking at a broader view of educating the public, Rebola's team has also created an informational campaign to train the public on signs of overdose and how to help. (MedicalXpress, USA, 22.01.2019)

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-01-team-naloxone.html

USA. FDA Statement: Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on unprecedented new efforts to support development of over-the-counter naloxone to help reduce opioid overdose deaths

(...) To encourage drug companies to enter the OTC market and increase access to naloxone, the FDA took an unprecedented step: we developed a model DFL with easy-to-understand pictograms on how to use the drug. We also conducted label comprehension testing to ensure the instructions were simple to follow. (FDA - U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 17.01.2019)

https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm629571.htm

USA. FDA Moves to Fast-Track OTC Naloxone for Opioid Overdose

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced "unprecedented" steps to support companies in developing over-the-counter (OTC) naloxone to help reduce opioid overdose deaths. (Medscape, 17.01.2019)

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/907885

Australien. An update on take-home naloxone knowledge amongst people who inject drugs

The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) is an ongoing illicit drug monitoring system which has been conducted in all states and territories of Australia since 2000, and forms part of Drug Trends. 

Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that is a safe and effective agent for reversing the effects of opioids, such as heroin and morphine. Since 2012, take-home programs have been established to make naloxone more widely available so that it can be administered by people other than medical professionals.

Using IDRS data from 2013 to 2018, this briefing note aims to examine knowledge of these take-home programs and naloxone more broadly, among a sample of PWID recruited as part of the IDRS in Victoria, Australia. (NDARC – National Drug & Alcohol Research Center, Australien, Januar 2019)

https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource/update-take-home-naloxone-knowledge-amongst-people-who-inject-drugs

After naloxone, when can opioid overdose patients be safely discharged?

Naloxone has saved thousands of lives. But can patients be safely discharged from the Emergency Department (ED) just an hour after they receive the medication that curtails drug overdoses? (University at Buffalo, USA, 02.01.2019)

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-12-naloxone-opioid-overdose-patients-safely.html

Hospital Observation Upon Reversal (HOUR) With Naloxone: A Prospective Clinical Prediction Rule Validation Study

Brian M. Clemency DO, William Eggleston PharmD, Evan W. Shaw, Michael Cheung, Nicholas S. Pokoj, Michael A. Manka MD, Donald J. Giordano, Laura Serafin, Han Yu MA, Heather A. Lindstrom PhD, David Hostler PhD

Academic Emergency Medicine 2018;00:1–9. First published: 28 December 2018, doi.org/10.1111/acem.13567

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acem.13567

Kanada. Drug users, families advised to keep naloxone kits handy 

Island Health is advising illicit drug users and their family and friends to keep life-saving naloxone kits close at hand. (Times Colonist, Kanada, 16.12.2018)

https://www.timescolonist.com/news/local/drug-users-families-advised-to-keep-naloxone-kits-handy-1.23540053

USA. Drug company to offer cheaper opioid overdose treatment after hiking price 600 percent

(...) A report from the Senate’s Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations last month found that the company, Kaléo, hiked the price of its drug Evzio to $4,100 for two injectors, raising the price by more than 600 percent between 2014 and 2017. (The Hill, USA, 12.12.2018)

https://thehill.com/policy/healthcare/420971-drug-company-to-offer-cheaper-opioid-overdose-treatment-after-hiking-price

USA. Generic Opioid Overdose Antidote Treatment to be Available in 2019

An authorized generic for kaléo’s naloxone HCl injection (Evzio®) will be availabile midyear in 2019, and will come with a list price of $178 per carton, each containing 2 auto-injectors. Offered through kaléo subsidiary IJ Therapeutics, the new authorized generic is the same formulation and design as the branded drug, but will have a different label. (Pharmacy Times, USA, 13.12.2018)

https://www.pharmacytimes.com/news/generic-opioid-overdose-antidote-treatment-to-be-available-in-2019

Naloxone distribution and possession following a large-scale naloxone programme.

Madah-Amiri, D., Gjersing, L., and Clausen, T. (2019) 

Addiction, 114: 92–100., doi.org/10.1111/add.14425.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.14425