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EMCDDA. Recreational use of nitrousoxide: a growing concern for Europe

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2022), 

Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/14934/2022.5054_EN_V3.pdf

Niederlande. Niederlande setzen Lachgas auf die Drogenliste

Den Haag – Die Niederlande wollen den Besitz und den Verkauf von Lachgas verbieten. Ab dem 1. Januar 2023 solle das zur Gruppe der Stickoxide gehörende Gas auf die Liste der verbotenen Rauschmittel gesetzt, teilte das Gesundheitsministerium gestern Abend in Den Haag mit.

Ausnahmen gelten demnach dann für medizinische und technische Zwecke. So dürfen Ärzte das Gas als leichtes Betäubungsmittel einsetzen. Und Privatpersonen noch kleine mit Lachgas gefüllte Patronen kaufen etwa für Schlagsahnespender. (aerzteblatt.de, 15.11.2022)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/138855/Niederlande-setzen-Lachgas-auf-die-Drogenliste

Major-Depression: Psilocybin erzielt in Phase-2-Studie begrenzte Wirkung

London – Die einmalige Gabe des Halluzinogens Psilocybin im Rahmen einer eintägigen Therapiesitzung kann die Symptome von Patienten mit Major-Depressionen über mehrere Wochen lindern. Eine signifikante Wirkung wurde in einer Phase-2-Studie jedoch nur in der höchsten Dosis erzielt.

Nach den im New England Journal of Medicine (2022; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2206443) publizierten Ergebnissen erreichte jeder 3. Patient eine Remission, deren Dauer allerdings nicht absehbar ist. (aerzteblatt.de, 07.11.2022)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/138592/Major-Depression-Psilocybin-erzielt-in-Phase-2-Studie-begrenzte-Wirkung

FDA alerts health care professionals of risks to patients exposed to xylazine in illicit drugs

Health care professionals should be cautious of possible xylazine inclusion in fentanyl, heroin, and other illicit drug overdoses, as naloxone may not be able to reverse its effects. FDA is aware of increasing reports of serious side effects from individuals exposed to fentanyl, heroin, and other illicit drugs contaminated with xylazine. (FDA – US Food&Drug Administration, USA, 08.11.2022)

https://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-safety-and-availability/fda-alerts-health-care-professionals-risks-patients-exposed-xylazine-illicit-drugs

Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression. 

Goodwin GM, Aaronson ST, Alvarez O, Arden PC, Baker A, Bennett JC, Bird C, Blom RE, Brennan C, Brusch D, Burke L, Campbell-Coker K, Carhart-Harris R, Cattell J, Daniel A, DeBattista C, Dunlop BW, Eisen K, Feifel D, Forbes M, Haumann HM, Hellerstein DJ, Hoppe AI, Husain MI, Jelen LA, Kamphuis J, Kawasaki J, Kelly JR, Key RE, Kishon R, Knatz Peck S, Knight G, Koolen MHB, Lean M, Licht RW, Maples-Keller JL, Mars J, Marwood L, McElhiney MC, Miller TL, Mirow A, Mistry S, Mletzko-Crowe T, Modlin LN, Nielsen RE, Nielson EM, Offerhaus SR, O'Keane V, Páleníček T, Printz D, Rademaker MC, van Reemst A, Reinholdt F, Repantis D, Rucker J, Rudow S, Ruffell S, Rush AJ, Schoevers RA, Seynaeve M, Shao S, Soares JC, Somers M, Stansfield SC, Sterling D, Strockis A, Tsai J, Visser L, Wahba M, Williams S, Young AH, Ywema P, Zisook S, Malievskaia E. 

N Engl J Med. 2022 Nov 3;387(18):1637-1648. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2206443. PMID: 36322843.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2206443

Efficacy of ketamine intervention to decrease alcohol use, cravings, and withdrawal symptoms in adults with problematic alcohol use or alcohol use disorder: A systematic review and comprehensive analysis of mechanism of actions. 

Garel N, McAnulty C, Greenway KT, Lesperance P, Miron JP, Rej S, Richard-Devantoy S, Jutras-Aswad D. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Oct 1;239:109606. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109606. Epub 2022 Aug 20. PMID: 36087563.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037687162200343X

The Seeds of Ignorance - Consequences of a Booming Betel-Nut Economy. 

Moss WJ. 

N Engl J Med. 2022 Sep 22;387(12):1059-1061. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2203571. Epub 2022 Sep 17. PMID: 36121043.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2203571

Laughing gas and the scientific pursuit of the sublime

In September 2021, the UK Home Secretary ordered a review into possession of nitrous oxide gas, one of the most popular recreational substances among 16- to 24-year-olds. Inhaling the gas may be a rising trend, but as historian Sharon Ruston reveals, it’s by no means a new activity. Laughing gas, as it was commonly known, could be found in some of the most respectable and fashionable homes of 19th-century Britain. (welcome collection, UK, 20.09.2022)

https://wellcomecollection.org/articles/YxnTCBEAACEAnk2Y

Percentage of Heavy Drinking Days Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy vs Placebo in the Treatment of Adult Patients With Alcohol Use Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. 

Bogenschutz MP, Ross S, Bhatt S, et al. 

JAMA Psychiatry. Published online August 24, 2022. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.2096

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/2795625

Depression „ausgeknipst“: So funktioniert die Therapie mit Halluzinogenen – was (Es-)ketamin und Psilocybin können und was nicht

Neuere Studien mit Halluzinogenen haben die Hoffnung auf eine effektive medikamentöse Therapie chronischer Depressionen geweckt. Auf dem Deutschen Kongress für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie stellte Prof. Dr. Torsten Passie den aktuellen Stand der Forschung zu Psilocybin und Ketamin/Esketamin vor. (Medscape, 28.07.2022)

https://deutsch.medscape.com/artikelansicht/4911424

USA. They Call It 'Tranq' -- and It's Making Street Drugs Even More Dangerous

Approaching a van that distributes supplies for safer drug use in Greenfield, Massachusetts, a man named Kyle noticed an alert about xylazine.

"Xylazine?" he asked, sounding out the unfamiliar word. "Tell me more." (Medscape, 11.09.2022)

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979084

What Ketamine and Psilocybin Can and Cannot Do in Depression

Recent studies with hallucinogens have raised hopes for an effective drug-based therapy to treat chronic depression. At the German Congress of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Torsten Passie, MD, PhD, professor of psychiatry and psychotherapy at the Hannover Medical School, gave a presentation on the current state of psilocybin and ketamine/esketamine research. (Medscape, 16.08.2022)

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979294

USA. The NIDA-funded National Drug Early Warning System (NDEWS), Coordinating Center at UF 

The National Drug Early Warning System (NDEWS), funded to the University of Florida by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), provides the field with timely, salient, and valuable information on emerging substance use trends. (National Drug Early Warning System (NDEWS), Juli 2022)

https://ndews.org/

Xylazine (CCENDU Drug Alert) 

Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction, 2022

Summarizes the increased risk of accidental overdose due to xylazine in Canada’s unregulated drug supply. Xylazine is a non-opioid pain reliever developed as a sedative and muscle relaxant for animals. It is being found as an adulterant in other drugs. In combination with other sedatives like fentanyl, benzodiazepines or alcohol, xylazine can increase the risk of overdose and death.

https://www.ccsa.ca/sites/default/files/2022-07/CCSA-CCENDU-Drug-Alert-Xylazine-2022-en.pdf

Abuse of tropicamide eye drops: review of clinical data. 

Bellman V, Ukolova A, Erovichenkova E, Lam S, Srivastava HK, Bruce J, Burgess DM. 

Braz J Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 21. doi: 10.47626/1516-4446-2021-2446. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35739063.

https://cdn.publisher.gn1.link/bjp.org.br/pdf/rbp20212446.pdf

Controlling for pleasure and risk: The experiences of sexuality and gender diverse people who use GHB. 

Freestone J, Prestage G, Bourne A, Ezard N, Race K, Nedanoski A, Murray J, Siefried KJ. 

Int J Drug Policy. 2022 Jul;105:103747. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103747. Epub 2022 May 25. PMID: 35643047.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395922001669

Ketamin: Antidepressiver Wirkmechanismus entdeckt

München – Der antidepressive Effekt von Ketamin könnte durch die Hochregulation bestimmter Kaliumkanäle im Hippocampus entstehen – den sogenannten KCNQ2. Zu diesem Ergebnis kam ein Forschungsteam des Max-Planck-Instituts für Psychiatrie (MPIP) in München, des Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel und des Helmholtz-Zentrums München anhand eines Mausmodells. (aerzteblatt.de, 01.06.2022)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/134748/Ketamin-Antidepressiver-Wirkmechanismus-entdeckt

Drugs of abuse in tap water from eight European countries: Determination by use of supramolecular solvents and tentative evaluation of risks to human health. 

Muñiz-Bustamante L, Caballero-Casero N, Rubio S. 

Environ Int. 2022 Jun;164:107281. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2022.107281. Epub 2022 May 6. PMID: 35561596.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412022002082

Health Effects Associated With Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) and Polysubstance Use: A Narrative Review. 

Striley CW, Hoeflich CC, Viegas AT, Berkowitz LA, Matthews EG, Akin LP, Iheanyi-Okeahialam C, Mansoor U, McCurdy CR. 

Subst Abuse. 2022 May 20;16:11782218221095873. doi: 10.1177/11782218221095873. PMID: 35645563; PMCID: PMC9130800.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9130800/

A Focus on Abuse/Misuse and Withdrawal Issues with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Analysis of Both the European EMA and the US FAERS Pharmacovigilance Databases. 

Chiappini S, Vickers-Smith R, Guirguis A, Corkery JM, Martinotti G, Schifano F. 

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 May 1;15(5):565. doi: 10.3390/ph15050565. PMID: 35631391; PMCID: PMC9146999.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146999/

UK/Frankreich. First the UK, now France: is needle-spiking spreading in European clubs?

Fear of needle-spiking is growing among clubbers in France, a few months after a wave of similar anxiety swept the UK. 

There have been more than 100 reports of needle-spiking in French clubs and bars since summer 2021. 

Needle-spiking involves the victim being injected against their will. Much like drink spiking, there have been reports of people being injected with Rohypnol or Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) – both known to be used as date-rape drugs. (euronews.culture, Frankreich, 13.05.2022)

https://www.euronews.com/culture/2022/05/12/first-the-uk-now-france-is-needle-spiking-spreading-in-european-clubs

Niederlande. First report of needle spiking now also in the Netherlands

Since last winter, there are reports of women being drugged on nights out in the UK, France and Belgium. Now, the first case has also surfaced in the Netherlands. (DutchReview, Niederlande, 11.05.2022)

https://dutchreview.com/news/first-report-of-needle-spiking-now-also-in-the-netherlands/

First Ever Clinical Trial with Ibogaine for Opioid Dependency

It’s been fifty years since the anti-addictive properties of ibogaine were discovered and finally the dream of those helping people with substance use disorder is coming true – clinical research that will set the stage for policy change and legal access. (ICEERS - International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research, and Service, Spanien, 14.04.2022)

https://www.iceers.org/first-ever-clinical-trial-with-ibogaine-for-opioid-dependency/

Eine ambulante Entzugsbehandlung von Kratom bei sozialer Phobie: psychotherapeutische Praxis trifft suchtpsychiatrische Institutsambulanz [An Outpatient Withdrawal Treatment of Kratom in Social Phobia: Psychotherapeutic Surgery Meets Addiction Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic]. 

Schmid P, Leibfarth M, Uhlmann C. 

Psychiatr Prax. 2022 May;49(4):217-220. German. doi: 10.1055/a-1787-4122. Epub 2022 May 6. PMID: 35523199.

Abstract

https://www.thieme-connect.de/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/a-1787-4122

Emergent Synthetic Stimulant Replacing Drug Sold as Ecstasy, Molly

In 2020 and 2021, the Schedule I drug eutylone—typically sold as ecstasy, Molly or MDMA—was the most commonly encountered synthetic stimulant in forensic casework. While regulated in countries beside the U.S., including Canada, the UK, Sweden and Germany, eutylone is not controlled under the 1961, 1971 or 1988 United Nations Conventions. (Forensic, USA, 02.05.2022)

https://www.forensicmag.com/585696-Emergent-Synthetic-Stimulant-Replacing-Drug-Sold-as-Ecstasy-Molly/

Associations between classic psychedelics and opioid use disorder in a nationally-representative U.S. adult sample. 

Jones, G., Ricard, J.A., Lipson, J. et al.

Sci Rep 12, 4099 (2022). doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08085-4

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-08085-4

LSD zum Frühstück

Weltweit nehmen immer mehr Menschen winzige Mengen an LSD zu sich, bevor sie sich auf den Weg zur Arbeit machen. Kreativer, konzentrierter, glücklicher – so lautet das Versprechen des »Microdosing«. Was ist dran an der Behauptung? (Spektrum, 26.01.2022)

https://www.spektrum.de/news/drogen-wie-gut-funktioniert-microdosing/1695152

Insights on the Impact of Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Abuse. 

Tay E, Lo WKW, Murnion B. Current 

Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2022 Feb 9;13:13-23. doi: 10.2147/SAR.S315720. PMID: 35173515; PMCID: PMC8843350.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8843350/

Khat, a Cultural Chewing Drug: A Toxicokinetic and Toxicodynamic Summary. 

Silva B, Soares J, Rocha-Pereira C, Mladěnka P, Remião F, On Behalf Of The Oemonom Researchers. 

Toxins (Basel). 2022 Jan 20;14(2):71. doi: 10.3390/toxins14020071. PMID: 35202099; PMCID: PMC8875844.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8875844/

A review on the forensic toxicology of global drug-facilitated sexual assaults. 

Skov K, Johansen SS, Linnet K, Nielsen MKK. 

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2022 Jan;26(1):183-197. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202201_27767. PMID: 35048994.

https://www.europeanreview.org/article/27767