A- A A+

Modafinil - What is Modafinil?

Modafinil (2-[(diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl] acetamide) is a manufactured drug that is a Prescription Only Medicine in the UK. It is available on prescription for a number of sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy. Although it is legal to possess, supply is illegal without prescription.

Modafinil has also become increasingly used as a recreational drug. Many students and professionals use the drug to improve their productivity and focus, as well as staying awake for longer. It has therefore been likened to drugs such as Adderall, Vyvanese and Ritalin which have also been used recreationally by healthy individuals to improve concentration. (Drug Science, UK, Oktober 2021)

https://www.drugscience.org.uk/drug-information/modafinil/

DR Kongo. Neue Droge im Kongo Die Zombies von Kinshasa 

Die Hauptstadt des Kongo wird von einer neuen Droge überrollt: Bombé – hergestellt aus Ablagerungen von Autokatalysatoren, gemixt mit einem wilden Medikamentencocktail. Den Konsumenten hilft es beim Vergessen. (Spiegel online, 24.09.2021)

https://www.spiegel.de/ausland/kongo-droge-bombe-macht-nutzer-zu-zombies-a-2ac0b9a2-a705-4026-8bab-86fc2790b59a

 

Nitrous oxide: How to take laughing gas as safely as possible

(…) Metro.co.uk spoke to Guy Jones, senior scientist at The Loop, which works to reduce the harm caused by drugs. 

He gave us top tips on how to take laughing gas in the safest way possible. (Metro, UK, 10.09.2021)

https://metro.co.uk/2021/09/10/nitrous-oxide-how-to-take-nitrous-oxide-as-safely-as-possible-15207122

LSD degrades hippocampal spatial representations and suppresses hippocampal-visual cortical interactions

Domenico, Carli et al.

Cell Reports, Volume 36, Issue 11, 109714 

https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(21)01163-3

"Areca Nut Chewing: Initiation, Addiction, and Harmful Effects Emphasizing the Barriers and Importance of Cessation",

I.A. Athukorala, W. M. Tilakaratne, R. D. Jayasinghe, 

Journal of Addiction, vol. 2021, Article ID 9967097, 9 pages, 2021., doi.org/10.1155/2021/9967097

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2021/9967097/

Notes from the Field: Xylazine Detection and Involvement in Drug Overdose Deaths — United States, 2019. 

Kariisa M, Patel P, Smith H, Bitting J. 

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1300–1302. DOI: doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7037a4

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7037a4.htm

The Pharmacological Profile of Second Generation Pyrovalerone Cathinones and Related Cathinone Derivative. 

Kolaczynska KE, Thomann J, Hoener MC, Liechti ME. 

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 31;22(15):8277. doi: 10.3390/ijms22158277. PMID: 34361040; PMCID: PMC8348686.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8348686/

GHB. FDA-Zulassung: Partydroge wirkt auch bei idiopathischer Hypersomnie

Silver Spring/Maryland – Die US-Arzneimittelbehörde FDA hat Natriumoxybat, das Natriumsalz der Gamma-Hydroxybuttersäure (GHB), zur Behandlung von Erwachsenen mit idiopathischer Hypersomnie zugelassen, einer seltenen Schlafstörung, die durch eine exzessive Tagesschläfrigkeit trotz einem als erholsam empfundenen und oft langen Nachtschlaf gekennzeichnet ist. (aerzteblatt.de, 16.08.2021)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/126412/FDA-Zulassung-Partydroge-wirkt-auch-bei-idiopathischer-Hypersomnie

Drug-drug interaction between diclofenac and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. 

Rodriguez-Cruz V, Ren T, Morris ME. 

Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2021 Jun 30. doi: 10.1002/bdd.2296. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34191301.

Abstract

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34191301/

Lachgas lindert Depressionen bereits in niedriger Konzentration

Chicago – Eine 1-stündige Behandlung mit Distickstoffmonoxid, besser bekannt als Lachgas, hat in einer Phase-2-Studie eine Majordepression bei Patienten gelindert, bei denen zuvor mehrere medikamentöse Therapien erfolglos geblieben waren. Die Behandlung war laut der Publikation in Science Translational Medicine (2021; DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abe1376) bereits in einer niedrigen Konzentration wirksam, die gut verträglich war und die Symptome über mindestens 2 Wochen gebessert hat. (aerzteblatt.de, 26.07.2021)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/124565/Lachgas-lindert-Depressionen-bereits-in-niedriger-Konzentration

Association of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment with acute substance misuse outcomes. 

Virtanen, S., Lagerberg, T., Khemiri, L., Suvisaari, J., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P., Chang, Z., and Latvala, A. (2021) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15625. 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/add.15625

A rise in cases of nitrous oxide abuse: neurological complications and biological findings. 

Einsiedler M, Voulleminot P, Demuth S, Kalaaji P, Bogdan T, Gauer L, Reschwein C, Nadaj-Pakleza A, de Sèze J, Kremer L, Schroder I, Bigaut K. 

J Neurol. 2021 Jul 10:1–6. doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10702-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34245346; PMCID: PMC8272450.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272450/

Psilocybin induces rapid and persistent growth of dendritic spines in frontal cortex in vivo

Shao, Ling-Xiao et al.

Neuron, Volume 0, Issue 0 

https://www.cell.com/neuron/fulltext/S0896-6273(21)00423-2

Unity in diversity: A systematic review on the GHB using population. 

Dijkstra BAG, Beurmanjer H, Goudriaan AE, Schellekens AFA, Joosten EAG. 

Int J Drug Policy. 2021 Apr 19;94:103230. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103230. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33892279.

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0955-3959(21)00135-3

Misuse of medication in adult substance misuse services: a systematic review protocol. 

Gittins R, Missen L, Maidment I. 

BMJ Open. 2021 Jun 22;11(6):e047283. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-047283. PMID: 34158301; PMCID: PMC8220460.

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/6/e047283.long

UK. Busy clinicians to get new learning tool about the misuse of prescription drugs

CNWL’s Club Drug Clinic today launches a web-based app for clinicians about the misuse of prescription drugs.

The misuse of prescription drugs is increasingly recognised as an emerging problem, but one that many clinicians poorly understand.

ATOMIC is a completely new, convenient and evidence-based learning intervention that improves the knowledge and confidence of front-line clinicians to identify, assess and manage acute and chronic harms caused by the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD). (NHS – National Health Service, UK, 14.06.2021)

https://www.cnwl.nhs.uk/news/busy-clinicians-get-new-learning-tool-about-misuse-prescription-drugs

Innovation in der Wirkstoffentwicklung: Morphinan-Verbindungen ohne Suchtgefahr

Die Fertigstellung eines neuen Wirkstoffes gegen Hustenreiz birgt nicht nur die Chance auf ein neues Arzneimittel auf dem Markt, sondern auch die Möglichkeit in Zukunft Morphium und andere Opiate ohne Suchtpotential zu entwickeln. Was kann man sich genau darunter vorstellen? Und welchen Nutzen haben Betroffene davon? (Deutsches Diabetes-Zentrum, 15.06.2021)

https://idw-online.de/de/news770693

Peripherally active dextromethorphan derivatives lower blood glucose levels by targeting pancreatic islets

Scholz, Okka et al.

Cell Chemical Biology, Volume 0, Issue 0 

https://www.cell.com/cell-chemical-biology/fulltext

Khat and neurobehavioral functions: A systematic review. 

Ahmed A, Ruiz MJ, Cohen Kadosh K, Patton R, Resurrección DM (2021) 

PLoS ONE 16(6): e0252900. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252900

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252900

Majordepression: Psychedelisches Pilzgift erzielt in Studie (tendenziell) bessere Wirkung als Standardmedikament

London – Die Einnahme der Droge Psilocybin, die aus halluzinogenen Pilzen („magic mushrooms“) gewonnen wird, hat in einer Phase-2-Studie im New England Journal of Medicine (2021; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994) die Symptome einer Majordepression mindestens so gut gelindert wie die Einahme von Escitalopram, einem Standardmedikament aus der Gruppe der selektiven Serotonin-Wiederaufnahmehemmer. (aerzteblatt.de, 10.06.2021)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/123021/Majordepression-Psychedelisches-Pilzgift-erzielt-in-Studie-(tendenziell)-bessere-Wirkung-als-Standardmedikament

Focus on Over-the-Counter Drugs' Misuse: A Systematic Review on Antihistamines, Cough Medicines, and Decongestants. 

Schifano F, Chiappini S, Miuli A, Mosca A, Santovito MC, Corkery JM, Guirguis A, Pettorruso M, Di Giannantonio M, Martinotti G. 

Front Psychiatry. 2021 May 7;12:657397. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.657397. PMID: 34025478; PMCID: PMC8138162.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138162/

Pharmacotherapy for Management of 'Kratom Use Disorder': A Systematic Literature Review With Survey of Experts. 

Stanciu C, Ahmed S, Hybki B, Penders T, Galbis-Reig D.

WMJ. 2021 Apr;120(1):54-61. PMID: 33974767.

https://wmjonline.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/120/1/54.pdf

Forschung an psychoaktiven Substanzen für die Behandlung von Depressionen

Mannheim – Ein Stoff aus bestimmten Pilzen – „Magic Mushrooms“ – könnte laut einer Studie auch bei der Therapie psychischer Leiden hilfreich sein. Forscher am Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit (ZI) in Mannheim und an der Berliner Charité untersuchten gemeinsam, ob sich dieser Wirkstoff – Psilocybin – zur Behandlung von Menschen eignet, die unter schweren Depressionen leiden. (aerzteblatt.de, 31.05.2021)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/124221/Forschung-an-psychoaktiven-Substanzen-fuer-die-Behandlung-von-Depressionen

EMCDDA. Wastewater analysis and drugs — a European multi-city study

Introduction

Analysing communal wastewaters for drugs and their metabolic products in order to estimate their consumption in the community is a developing field, involving scientists working in different research areas, including analytical chemistry, physiology and biochemistry, sewage engineering, spatial epidemiology and statistics, and conventional drug epidemiology. This page presents the findings from studies since 2011. Data from all studies may be explored through an interactive tool, and a detailed an analayis of the findings of the most recent study in 2020 is presented. (EMCDDA, Mai 2021)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/pods/waste-water-analysis#data-explorer

The epidemiology of mescaline use: Pattern of use, motivations for consumption, and perceived consequences, benefits, and acute and enduring subjective effects. 

Uthaug MV, Davis AK, Haas TF, et al. 

Journal of Psychopharmacology. May 2021. doi:10.1177/02698811211013583

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/02698811211013583

Past-Year Kratom Use in the U.S.: Estimates From a Nationally Representative Sample

Palamar, Joseph J.

American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 0, Issue 0 

https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(21)00162-8/fulltext

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression. 

Carhart-Harris R, Giribaldi B, Watts R, Baker-Jones M, Murphy-Beiner A, Murphy R, Martell J, Blemings A, Erritzoe D, Nutt DJ. 

N Engl J Med. 2021 Apr 15;384(15):1402-1411. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994. PMID: 33852780.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa2032994

Differentiation of Mitragyna speciosa, a narcotic plant, from allied Mitragyna species using DNA barcoding-high-resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis. 

Tungphatthong, C., Urumarudappa, S.K.J., Awachai, S. et al. 

Sci Rep 11, 6738 (2021). doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86228-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-86228-9

 

An International Trip: Global Experts Weigh In on Psychedelics

Medscape, 31.03.2021

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/948483

Within-treatment changes in a novel addiction treatment program using traditional Amazonian medicine. 

O'Shaughnessy DM, Berlowitz I, Rodd R, Sarnyai Z, Quirk F. 

Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2021 Jan 25;11:2045125320986634. doi: 10.1177/2045125320986634. PMID: 33717431; PMCID: PMC7841703.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841703/