A- A A+

USA. Bromazolam Prevalence Surging Across the United States Driven In Part by Increasing Detections Alongside Fentanyl

Purpose: The objective of this announcement is to notify public health and safety, law enforcement, first responders, clinicians, medical examiners and coroners, forensic and clinical laboratory personnel, and all other related communities about new information surrounding the emergent benzodiazepine bromazolam. (cfsre – nps discovery, USA, Juni 2022)

https://www.npsdiscovery.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Public-Alert_Bromazolam_NPS-Discovery_061522.pdf?mc_cid=5d1e4ead17&mc_eid=0872426f82

Representation of Benzodiazepines in Treatment Guidelines: The Paradox of Undesirable Objectivity. 

Starcevic V. 

Psychother Psychosom. 2022 May 12:1-5. doi: 10.1159/000524772. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35551128.

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/524772

Phenobarbital use in benzodiazepine and z-drug detoxification: a single-centre 15-year observational retrospective study in clinical practice. 

Sartori S, Crescioli G, Brilli V, Traversoni S, Lanzi C, Vannacci A, Mannaioni G, Lombardi N. 

Intern Emerg Med. 2022 Apr 12:1–10. doi: 10.1007/s11739-022-02976-0. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35412225; PMCID: PMC9001824.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9001824/

Addiction of High Dose of Benzodiazepine: Verona Detox Approach With Flumazenil. 

Casari R, Metastasio A, Zamboni L, Biasioli M, Campagnari S, Lugoboni F.

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 31;13:857376. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.857376. PMID: 35432044; PMCID: PMC9008883.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9008883/

A descriptive analysis of concomitant opioid and benzodiazepine medication use and associated adverse drug events in United States adults between 2009 and 2018. 

Marwitz KK, Noureldin M. 

Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm. 2022 Mar 20;5:100130. doi: 10.1016/j.rcsop.2022.100130. PMID: 35478505; PMCID: PMC9031034.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9031034/

Experiences with benzodiazepine use, tapering, and discontinuation: an Internet survey. 

Reid Finlayson AJ, Macoubrie J, Huff C, Foster DE, Martin PR. 

Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. 2022 Apr 25;12:20451253221082386. doi: 10.1177/20451253221082386. PMID: 35499041; PMCID: PMC9047812.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047812/

Langfristiger Benzodiazepingebrauch könnte Synapsen angreifen

München – Benzodiazepine könnten bei längerer Einnahme zum Verlust von Synapsen im Gehirn führen. Das berichtet eine Arbeitsgruppe um Jochen Herms und Mario Dorostkar vom Zentrum für Neuropathologie und Prionforschung der Ludwigs-Maximilians-Universität München und dem Deutschen Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen. Die Arbeit ist in der Fachzeitschrift Nature Neuroscience erschienen (DOI: 10.1038/s41593-022-01013-9). (aerzteblatt.de, 05.04.2022)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/133121/Langfristiger-Benzodiazepingebrauch-koennte-Synapsen-angreifen

Long-term diazepam treatment enhances microglial spine engulfment and impairs cognitive performance via the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). 

Shi Y, Cui M, Ochs K, Brendel M, Strübing FL, Briel N, Eckenweber F, Zou C, Banati RB, Liu GJ, Middleton RJ, Rupprecht R, Rudolph U, Zeilhofer HU, Rammes G, Herms J, Dorostkar MM. 

Nat Neurosci. 2022 Mar;25(3):317-329. doi: 10.1038/s41593-022-01013-9. Epub 2022 Feb 28. PMID: 35228700.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-022-01013-9

Outcomes After Implementation of a Benzodiazepine-Sparing Alcohol Withdrawal Order Set in an Integrated Health Care System. 

Smith JT, Sage M, Szeto H, Myers LC, Lu Y, Martinez A, Kipnis P, Liu VX. 

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Feb 1;5(2):e220158. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.0158. PMID: 35191968; PMCID: PMC8864512.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8864512/

Polysubstance Use Patterns Among High Dose Benzodiazepine Users: A Latent Class Analysis and Differences Between Male and Female Use. 

Zamboni L, Portoghese I, Congiu A, Zandonai T, Casari R, Fusina F, Bertoldi A, Lugoboni F. 

Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jan 25;13:811130. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.811130. PMID: 35145442; PMCID: PMC8821140.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8821140/

"Chill doch mal!“ - Die sedierte Gesellschaft (Podcast)

Sie sind ein Segen in der Notfallmedizin, die Benzodiazepine, gemeinhin als Beruhigungs- und Schlafmittel bekannt. In Watte gepackt übersteht man die Phase kurz vor einer Operation oder eine Panikattacke einfach besser. Zunehmend aber entdecken Jugendliche die „Benzos“ für sich, ebenso wie Opioide, eigentlich als Schmerzmittel im Einsatz. Dass die Medikamente verschreibungspflichtig sind und schnell süchtig machen können, stört offensichtlich nicht. Experten sprechen von popkulturellen Einflüssen und einer "Lieferandoisierung“ des Drogenmarktes - mit wenigen Klicks ist die Bestellung perfekt. Über 1,5 Millionen Menschen sind nach Schätzungen von Benzodiazepinen abhängig, darunter auch viele Ältere, den wenigsten merkt man es an. Wie gefährlich ist die neue Verbreitung dieser Medikamente? Und gibt es wirklich keinen anderen Weg, um entspannt und wohlgemut durchs Leben zu gehen? (Hessischer Rundfunk, Redaktion Der Tag, 27.01.22, Audio 54:15, u.a. mit PD Dr. Uwe Verthein vom ZIS Hamburg)

https://www.hr2.de/podcasts/der-tag/chill-doch-mal---die-sedierte-gesellschaft,podcast-episode-97510.html

Significant toxicity following an increase in poisonings with designer benzodiazepines in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2020. 

Essink S, Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen JJ, van Riel AJHP, Dekker D, Hondebrink L. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Feb 1;231:109244. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109244. Epub 2021 Dec 31. PMID: 34998250.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871621007390

Kanada. CCENDU Bulletin: Risks and Harms Associated with Nonmedical Benzodiazepines in the Unregulated Drug Supply in Canada

This bulletin summarizes the risks and harms associated with nonmedical benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like substances that are increasingly being identified in drugs on the unregulated market, particularly drugs sold as opioids. (Canadian Centre on
Substance Use and Addiction, Kanada, Dezember 2021)

https://ccsa.ca/ccendu-alerts-and-bulletins

Benzodiazepines: Uses, Dangers, and Clinical Considerations. 

Edinoff AN, Nix CA, Hollier J, Sagrera CE, Delacroix BM, Abubakar T, Cornett EM, Kaye AM, Kaye AD. 

Neurol Int. 2021 Nov 10;13(4):594-607. doi: 10.3390/neurolint13040059. PMID: 34842811; PMCID: PMC8629021.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8629021/

From the clinic to the street: the changing role of benzodiazepines in the Scottish overdose epidemic. 

McAuley A, Matheson C, Robertson JR. 

Int J Drug Policy. 2021 Nov 6;100:103512. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103512. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34753047.

Abstract

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34753047/

Benzodiazepine and Z-drug use and the risk of developing dementia.

Torres-Bondia F, Dakterzada F, Galván L, Buti M, Besanson G, Grill E, Buil R, de Batlle J, Piñol-Ripoll G.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2021 Nov 2:pyab073. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyab073. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34727174.

https://watermark.silverchair.com/pyab073.pdf

The Psychonauts' Benzodiazepines; Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Analysis and Docking Prediction of Their Biological Activity. 

Catalani V, Botha M, Corkery JM, Guirguis A, Vento A, Scherbaum N, Schifano F. 

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Jul 26;14(8):720. doi: 10.3390/ph14080720. PMID: 34451817; PMCID: PMC8398354.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398354/

Assessing the clinical utility of the severity dependence scale for benzodiazepine use disorder. 

Lowton K, Chiba G. 

S Afr J Psychiatr. 2021 Jul 28;27:1571. doi: 10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v27i0.1571. PMID: 34394974; PMCID: PMC8335755.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335755/

Benzodiazepines and Amphetamines Use among Methadone Maintenance Participants and Their Associations with Treatment Adherence. 

Cheng Z, Diao F, Chen GH, Lin CQ, Li L, Wu ZY, Cao XB.

Biomed Environ Sci. 2021 Jun 20;34(6):499-502. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.069. PMID: 34284859.

http://www.besjournal.com/en/article/doi/10.3967/bes2021.069

Mortality and concurrent use of opioids and hypnotics in older patients: A retrospective cohort study. 

Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, Malow BA, Daugherty JR, Stein CM (2021) 

PLoS Med 18(7): e1003709. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003709

https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003709

EMCDDA. New report highlights public health risks and increasing availability of ‘designer benzodiazepines’ in Europe 

New benzodiazepines, which are not controlled by international drug laws, come under the spotlight today in a new report released by the EU drugs agency (EMCDDA) (1). Often marketed as ‘designer benzodiazepines’, these substances are sold as ‘legal’ replacements for controlled benzodiazepines and are becoming increasingly available in Europe. They are monitored by the agency as new psychoactive substances (NPS) through the EU Early Warning System (EWS).

The EMCDDA currently monitors 30 new benzodiazepines, over 80% of which were detected for the first time between 2014 and 2020. Despite this relatively large number, the new benzodiazepine market in Europe is currently dominated by etizolam and flualprazolam — although this may change, as both substances were placed under international control in November 2020. In 2019, 1 240 seizures of new benzodiazepines were reported by the EU Member States (around 5% of NPS seizures). (EMCDDA, News release No 6/2021, Lissabon, 09.06.2021

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2021/6/report-highlights-public-health-risks-and-increasing-availability-designer-benzodiazepines-europe_en

EMCDDA. New benzodiazepines in Europe – a review

Summary

This report provides a technical review of the current body of knowledge regarding new benzodiazepines that are monitored by the EU Early Warning System. The aims of this report are to strengthen situational awareness of new benzodiazepines in Europe, and to help stakeholders prepare for and respond to public health and social threats caused by such substances. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, Juni 2021)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/13759/TD0221596ENN_002.pdf

Benzodiazepine Use in Opioid Maintenance Treatment Programme: Risks and Clinical Outcomes. 

Oliveira C, Filipe R, Meira J, Sampaio L, Teixeira L, Rodrigues J, Nunes I, Tavares J. 

Acta Med Port. 2021 Mar 1;34(3):209-216. doi: 10.20344/amp.13181. Epub 2021 Mar 1. PMID: 33971116.

https://actamedicaportuguesa.com/revista/index.php/amp/article/view/13181/6273

Relationship between benzodiazepine prescription, aggressive behavior, and behavioral disinhibition: a retrospective study in a Swiss prison. 

Baggio, S., Starcevic, V., Heller, P. et al. 

Harm Reduct J 18, 58 (2021). doi.org/10.1186/s12954-021-00504-5

https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12954-021-00504-5

Doc-Hopping bei Benzodiazepin- und Pregabalinverordnungen

Wie lässt sich vermeiden, dass Patienten verschiedene Praxen aufsuchen, um an möglichst große mengen bestimmter medikamente zu kommen? (R.Ullmann in KVHH Journal, 12/2020, Seiten 26/27)

https://www.kvhh.net/_Resources/Persistent/3/e/a/4/3ea4979c6d3f19755778b20928ee0c42525cf8e7/12_20_www_KVH_Journal_RZ02.pdf

A high-resolution in vivo atlas of the human brain's benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors. 

Nørgaard M, Beliveau V, Ganz M, Svarer C, Pinborg LH, Keller SH, Jensen PS, Greve DN, Knudsen GM. 

Neuroimage. 2021 Feb 18;232:117878. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117878. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33610745.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053811921001555

Opioid overdose reduced in patients taking buprenorphine

Study indicates the drug is effective in opioid users who also take benzodiazepines for anxiety, other conditions. (Washington University School of Medicine, 02.03.2021)

https://medicine.wustl.edu/news/buprenorphine-protects-against-opioid-overdoses-even-in-benzodiazepine-users/

Kanada. A Deadly Synthetic Street Drug Called ‘Benzo Dope’ Is on the Rise

The emerging drug contains two highly-potent highs, fentanyl and etizolam, and has been linked to a string of drug deaths in Canada. (Vice, UK, 02.03.2021)

https://www.vice.com/en/article/3anmy5/a-deadly-synthetic-street-drug-called-benzo-dope-is-on-the-rise

Concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines/Z-drugs in Alberta, Canada and the risk of hospitalisation and death: a case cross-over study. 

Sharma V, Simpson SH, Samanani S, Jess E, Eurich DT. 

BMJ Open. 2020 Nov 20;10(11):e038692. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038692. PMID: 33444187; PMCID: PMC7682464.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682464/

Benzodiazepines: the time for systematic change is now. 

Schmitz, A. (2021)

Addiction, 116: 219– 221. doi.org/10.1111/add.15095.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.15095