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Concurrent Use of Benzodiazepine by Heroin Users-What Are the Prevalence and the Risks Associated with This Pattern of Use?. 

Yamamoto T, Dargan PI, Dines A, et al. 

J Med Toxicol. 2019;15(1):4-11. doi:10.1007/s13181-018-0674-4

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314928/

Mixing meds: Weighing the pros and cons of adding benzodiazepines to buprenorphine treatment for individuals with opioid use disorder

Benzodiazepines (a class of sedative medications best known by brand names like Valium, Xanax, and Klonopin) may be prescribed to patients who are receiving buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder (an opioid agonist medication best known in formulation with naloxone, marketed as Suboxone). Clinicians accept that there are both risks, and potential benefits associated with combining these medications. To help aid clinical recommendations, Park and colleagues examined some of the risks and benefits associated with prescribing buprenorphine and benzodiazepines together using government records from the state of Massachusetts. (Recovery Research Institute, USA, Juni 2020)

https://www.recoveryanswers.org/research-post/mixing-benzodiazepines-buprenorphine-opioid-use-disorder/

An expanding world of new psychoactive substances-designer benzodiazepines.

Zawilska JB, Wojcieszak J.

Neurotoxicology. 2019 Jul;73:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.015.

Abstract

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0161813X19300178

Combining opioids and benzodiazepines: effects on mortality and severe adverse respiratory events.

Boon M, van Dorp E, Broens S, Overdyk F.

Ann Palliat Med. 2020 Mar;9(2):542-557. doi: 10.21037/apm.2019.12.09. 

http://apm.amegroups.com/article/view/35734/29319

A serious adverse drug reaction probably induced by clonazepam: a case report of myotoxicity.

Han X, Wang J.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 Nov 5;20(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s40360-019-0366-y.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833282/

Problematic Medication With Benzodiazepines, "Z-drugs", and Opioid Analgesics.

Buth S, Holzbach R, Martens MS, Neumann-Runde E, Meiners O, Verthein U.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2019 Sep 13;116(37):607-614. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0607.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819700/

nal von minden: Drug-Screen® 7-Aminoclonazepam Schnelltest

Zum Nachweis von 7-Aminoclonazepam in Urin, Cut-off: 200 ng/mL

https://www.nal-vonminden.com/de/fileupload/index/download?id=133

Benzodiazepine: Fluch und Segen - Was Benzodiazepine im Körper bewirken

Daniela Beer, “Product Manager Toxicology“, nal von minden GmbH

Benzodiazepine- Fluch und Segen - Was Benzodiazepine im Körper bewirken - D.Beer

Benzodiazepines for treatment of patients with delirium excluding those who are cared for in an intensive care unit.

Li Y, Ma J, Jin Y, Li N, Zheng R, Mu W, Wang J, Si J, Chen J, Shang H. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD012670. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012670.pub2

Abstract

https://www.cochrane.org/CD012670/DEMENTIA_use-benzodiazepines-treat-adults-delirium-excluding-patients-being-cared-intensive-care-units-icu

Is Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use a Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline? Results of a Systematic Review

Danilo Nader and Linda Gowing

Journal of Addiction, Volume 2020, Article ID 1569456, 10 pages, doi.org/10.1155/2020/1569456

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2020/1569456/

Prescription of benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and gabapentinoids and mortality risk in people receiving opioid agonist treatment: Observational study based on the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Office for National Statistics death records.

Macleod J, Steer C, Tilling K, Cornish R, Marsden J, Millar T, Strang J, Hickman M.

PLoS Med. 2019 Nov 26;16(11):e1002965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002965. 

https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1002965

Clonazepam used as single antiepileptic drug to treat people with newly diagnosed epilepsy

Brigo F, Igwe SC, Bragazzi N, Lattanzi S. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD013028. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013028.pub2

Certainty of the evidence

So far, the evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam used as a single antiepileptic drug for the treatment of epilepsy is scarce and of very low certainty; hence insufficient to base decisions on its use in monotherapy.

Abstract

https://www.cochrane.org/CD013028/EPILEPSY_clonazepam-used-single-antiepileptic-drug-treat-people-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy

The Evolution of Designer Benzodiazepines - Challenges for detection and monitoring 

Maximo J. Marin, MD, and Xander M.R. van Wijk, PhD, DABCC  // Date: NOV.1.2019  // Source: Clinical Laboratory News; American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC)

https://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/articles/2019/november/the-evolution-of-designer-benzodiazepines

Anticholinergic and benzodiazepine medication use and risk of incident dementia: a UK cohort study.

Grossi CM, Richardson K, Fox C, Maidment I, Steel N, Loke YK, Arthur A, Myint PK, Campbell N, Boustani M, Robinson L, Brayne C, Matthews FE, Savva GM.

BMC Geriatr. 2019 Oct 21;19(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1280-2.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802337/

Association between benzodiazepines and suicide risk: a matched case-control study.

Cato V, Holländare F, Nordenskjöld A, Sellin T.

BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Oct 26;19(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2312-3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815437/

Medicines associated with dependence or withdrawal: a mixed-methods public health review and national database study in England.

Marsden J, White M, Annand F, Burkinshaw P, Carville S, Eastwood B, Kelleher M, Knight J, O'Connor R, Tran A, Willey P, Greaves F, Taylor S.

Lancet Psychiatry. 2019 Nov;6(11):935-950. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30331-1.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(19)30331-1/fulltext

Norwegen. 'The entire pharmaceutical compendium' in the treatment of substance use disorders

Jørg Mørland, Helge Waal

Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2019, doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0678

https://tidsskriftet.no/en/2019/02/kronikk/entire-pharmaceutical-compendium-treatment-substance-use-disorders

Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Between Opioids and Overdosed Benzodiazepines Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation.

Ji B, Liu S, Xue Y, He X, Man VH, Xie XQ, Wang J.

Drugs R D. 2019 Sep;19(3):297-305. doi: 10.1007/s40268-019-00282-3.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738369/

Reduction of Benzodiazepine Use in Patients Prescribed Medical Cannabis.

Purcell C, Davis A, Moolman N, Taylor SM.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2019 Sep 23;4(3):214-218. doi: 10.1089/can.2018.0020.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757237/

An Approach to Evaluate the Effects of Concomitant Prescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines on Veteran Deaths and Suicides.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. 

Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi.org/10.17226/25532.

https://www.nap.edu/download/25532

Originalarbeit: Problematische Medikation von Benzodiazepinen, Z-Substanzen und Opioid-Analgetika - Analyse von Verschreibungsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung der Jahre 2006–2016

Problematic medication with benzodiazepines, “Z-drugs”, and opioid analgesics—an analysis of national health insurance prescription data from 2006–2016

Buth, Sven; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Martens, Marcus-Sebastian; Neumann-Runde, Eike; Meiners, Ommo; Verthein, Uwe

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 607-14; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0607

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/medizin/originalarbeiten?aid=209655

Considerations for the use of a loading dose of diazepam for the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence.

Azanza Balmori A, García Álvarez G, Rodríguez Turiel C, Povedano Suárez EA, Muquebil Ali Al Shaban Rodríguez OW.

Adicciones. 2018 Jul 12;30(3):227-228. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.1116. English, Spanish. 

http://adicciones.es/index.php/adicciones/article/view/1116

Association of Maternal Use of Benzodiazepines and Z-Hypnotics During Pregnancy With Motor and Communication Skills and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschoolers.

Lupattelli A, Chambers CD, Bandoli G, Handal M, Skurtveit S, Nordeng H.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e191435. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1435. Erratum in: JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e194291. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450329/

Association of prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines and child internalizing problems: A sibling-controlled cohort study.

Brandlistuen RE, Ystrom E, Hernandez-Diaz S, Skurtveit S, Selmer R, Handal M, et al. (2017) 

PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181042. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181042

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181042

Rates of Physician Coprescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines After the Release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in 2016.

Jeffery MM, Hooten WM, Jena AB, Ross JS, Shah ND, Karaca-Mandic P.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Aug 2;2(8):e198325. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8325.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2740781

The Emergence of New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) Benzodiazepines. A Survey of their Prevalence in Opioid Substitution Patients using LC-MS

S.Mc Namara, S.Stokes, J.Nolan

Issue: Ir Med J; Vol 112; No. 7; P970

http://imj.ie/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/The-Emergence-of-New-Psychoactive-Substance-NPS-Benzodiazepines.-A-Survey-of-their-Prevalence-in-Opioid-Substitution-Patients-using-LC-MS.pdf

Therapie der Benzodiazepinabhängigkeit - Treatment of benzodiazepine dependence

Michael Soyka

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2019; 87(04): 259-270, DOI: 10.1055/a-0836-7514

Abstract

https://www.thieme-connect.com/products/ejournals/abstract/10.1055/a-0836-7514

Altered cerebral benzodiazepine receptor binding in post-traumatic stress disorder.

Reuveni I, Nugent AC, Gill J, Vythilingam M, Carlson PJ, Lerner A, Neumeister A, Charney DS, Drevets WC, Bonne O.

Transl Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 4;8(1):206. doi: 10.1038/s41398-018-0257-9.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-018-0257-9

Tackling benzodiazepine misuse.

Hayhoe B, Lee-Davey J.

BMJ. 2018 Jul 27;362:k3208. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k3208.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065205/

Long-term use of benzodiazepines and Z drugs: a qualitative study of patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions and possible levers for change

Aliaksandra Mokhar, Silke Kuhn, Janine Topp, Jörg Dirmaier, Martin Härter, Uwe Verthein

BJGP Open 19 February 2019; bjgpopen18X101626. DOI: 10.3399/bjgpopen18X101626

https://bjgpopen.org/content/early/2019/02/19/bjgpopen18X101626