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Prescription of benzodiazepines, z-drugs, and gabapentinoids and mortality risk in people receiving opioid agonist treatment: Observational study based on the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Office for National Statistics death records.

Macleod J, Steer C, Tilling K, Cornish R, Marsden J, Millar T, Strang J, Hickman M.

PLoS Med. 2019 Nov 26;16(11):e1002965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002965. 


Clonazepam used as single antiepileptic drug to treat people with newly diagnosed epilepsy

Brigo F, Igwe SC, Bragazzi N, Lattanzi S. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2019, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD013028. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013028.pub2

Certainty of the evidence

So far, the evidence on the efficacy and tolerability of clonazepam used as a single antiepileptic drug for the treatment of epilepsy is scarce and of very low certainty; hence insufficient to base decisions on its use in monotherapy.



The Evolution of Designer Benzodiazepines - Challenges for detection and monitoring 

Maximo J. Marin, MD, and Xander M.R. van Wijk, PhD, DABCC  // Date: NOV.1.2019  // Source: Clinical Laboratory News; American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC)


Anticholinergic and benzodiazepine medication use and risk of incident dementia: a UK cohort study.

Grossi CM, Richardson K, Fox C, Maidment I, Steel N, Loke YK, Arthur A, Myint PK, Campbell N, Boustani M, Robinson L, Brayne C, Matthews FE, Savva GM.

BMC Geriatr. 2019 Oct 21;19(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12877-019-1280-2.


Association between benzodiazepines and suicide risk: a matched case-control study.

Cato V, Holländare F, Nordenskjöld A, Sellin T.

BMC Psychiatry. 2019 Oct 26;19(1):317. doi: 10.1186/s12888-019-2312-3.


Medicines associated with dependence or withdrawal: a mixed-methods public health review and national database study in England.

Marsden J, White M, Annand F, Burkinshaw P, Carville S, Eastwood B, Kelleher M, Knight J, O'Connor R, Tran A, Willey P, Greaves F, Taylor S.

Lancet Psychiatry. 2019 Nov;6(11):935-950. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30331-1.


Norwegen. 'The entire pharmaceutical compendium' in the treatment of substance use disorders

Jørg Mørland, Helge Waal

Tidsskr Nor Legeforen 2019, doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.18.0678


Prediction of Drug-Drug Interactions Between Opioids and Overdosed Benzodiazepines Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation.

Ji B, Liu S, Xue Y, He X, Man VH, Xie XQ, Wang J.

Drugs R D. 2019 Sep;19(3):297-305. doi: 10.1007/s40268-019-00282-3.


Reduction of Benzodiazepine Use in Patients Prescribed Medical Cannabis.

Purcell C, Davis A, Moolman N, Taylor SM.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2019 Sep 23;4(3):214-218. doi: 10.1089/can.2018.0020.


An Approach to Evaluate the Effects of Concomitant Prescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines on Veteran Deaths and Suicides.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. 

Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi.org/10.17226/25532.


Originalarbeit: Problematische Medikation von Benzodiazepinen, Z-Substanzen und Opioid-Analgetika - Analyse von Verschreibungsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung der Jahre 2006–2016

Problematic medication with benzodiazepines, “Z-drugs”, and opioid analgesics—an analysis of national health insurance prescription data from 2006–2016

Buth, Sven; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Martens, Marcus-Sebastian; Neumann-Runde, Eike; Meiners, Ommo; Verthein, Uwe

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 607-14; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0607


Considerations for the use of a loading dose of diazepam for the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence.

Azanza Balmori A, García Álvarez G, Rodríguez Turiel C, Povedano Suárez EA, Muquebil Ali Al Shaban Rodríguez OW.

Adicciones. 2018 Jul 12;30(3):227-228. doi: 10.20882/adicciones.1116. English, Spanish. 


Association of Maternal Use of Benzodiazepines and Z-Hypnotics During Pregnancy With Motor and Communication Skills and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschoolers.

Lupattelli A, Chambers CD, Bandoli G, Handal M, Skurtveit S, Nordeng H.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Apr 5;2(4):e191435. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.1435. Erratum in: JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e194291. 


Association of prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines and child internalizing problems: A sibling-controlled cohort study.

Brandlistuen RE, Ystrom E, Hernandez-Diaz S, Skurtveit S, Selmer R, Handal M, et al. (2017) 

PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181042. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181042


Rates of Physician Coprescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines After the Release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in 2016.

Jeffery MM, Hooten WM, Jena AB, Ross JS, Shah ND, Karaca-Mandic P.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Aug 2;2(8):e198325. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8325.


The Emergence of New Psychoactive Substance (NPS) Benzodiazepines. A Survey of their Prevalence in Opioid Substitution Patients using LC-MS

S.Mc Namara, S.Stokes, J.Nolan

Issue: Ir Med J; Vol 112; No. 7; P970


Therapie der Benzodiazepinabhängigkeit - Treatment of benzodiazepine dependence

Michael Soyka

Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2019; 87(04): 259-270, DOI: 10.1055/a-0836-7514



Altered cerebral benzodiazepine receptor binding in post-traumatic stress disorder.

Reuveni I, Nugent AC, Gill J, Vythilingam M, Carlson PJ, Lerner A, Neumeister A, Charney DS, Drevets WC, Bonne O.

Transl Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 4;8(1):206. doi: 10.1038/s41398-018-0257-9.


Tackling benzodiazepine misuse.

Hayhoe B, Lee-Davey J.

BMJ. 2018 Jul 27;362:k3208. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k3208.


Long-term use of benzodiazepines and Z drugs: a qualitative study of patients’ and healthcare professionals’ perceptions and possible levers for change

Aliaksandra Mokhar, Silke Kuhn, Janine Topp, Jörg Dirmaier, Martin Härter, Uwe Verthein

BJGP Open 19 February 2019; bjgpopen18X101626. DOI: 10.3399/bjgpopen18X101626


Comparing the effects of oxazepam and diazepam in actual highway driving and neurocognitive test performance: a validation study.

Jongen S, Vuurman EFPM, Ramaekers JG, Vermeeren A.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Apr;235(4):1283-1294. doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-4844-5.


Schottland. Drugs Deaths Warning Over Lethal Street Valium

Glasgow. Addictions experts today voiced fears that street drugs being sold as Valium are responsible for an unprecedented number of drug related deaths in Glasgow.

Concerns were raised that "Street Valium" (also known as Street Blues) may be linked to a sharp rise in the number of fatal and non-fatal overdoses in the city. (Glasgow, City Council, 28.01.2019)


Benzodiazepine withdrawal in pregnant women with opioid use disorders: An observational study of current clinical practices at a tertiary obstetrical hospital.

Gopalan P, Moses-Kolko E, Valpey R, Shenai N, Smith E.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 11;57:29-33. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2018.12.005.



Benzodiazepine and Opioid Co-Usage in the United States Population, 1999–2014: An Exploratory Analysis.

Nicholas T Vozoris

Sleep, zsy264, doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy264



Frequency, risk factors and symptomatology of iatrogenic withdrawal from opioids and benzodiazepines in critically Ill neonates, children and adults: A systematic review of clinical studies.

Duceppe MA, Perreault MM, Frenette AJ, Burry LD, Rico P, Lavoie A, Gélinas C, Mehta S, Dagenais M, Williamson DR.

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2018 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12787. 


Evaluating the Impact of Prescribed Versus Nonprescribed Benzodiazepine Use in Methadone Maintenance Therapy: Results from a Population-based Retrospective Cohort Study.

Eibl JK, Wilton AS, Franklyn AM, Kurdyak P, Marsh DC.

J Addict Med. 2018 Dec 12. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000476. 



We Need to Talk About Benzodiazepines—Including Their Use in Drug Combinations

Opioids like heroin and fentanyl have grabbed the media and legislative spotlight—from soaring overdose fatalities to the misguided prescription restrictions and drug-induced homicide laws ostensibly intended to combat them. What’s glossed over is that our overdose crisis primarily relates to polysubstance use. Around 80 percent of deaths involving a synthetic opioid in 2016, for example, also involved another drug. When we only focus on partial data, we only come up with partially effective solutions. With our cultural narrative failing to acknowledge this, people who use drugs need to make the effort to learn more to keep ourselves safer. (Filter, USA, 04.12.2018)


Patient-centered care interventions to reduce the inappropriate prescription and use of benzodiazepines and z-drugs: a systematic review.

Mokhar A, Topp J, Härter M, Schulz H, Kuhn S, Verthein U, Dirmaier J.

PeerJ. 2018 Oct 8;6:e5535. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5535. 


Designer Benzodiazepines: Another Class of New Psychoactive Substances.

Moosmann B, Auwärter V.

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2018 Oct 27. doi: 10.1007/164_2018_154.



Use of sedative-hypnotics and the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia: A retrospective cohort study.

Lee J, Jung SJ, Choi J-w, Shin A, Lee YJ (2018) 

PLoS ONE 13(9): e0204413. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204413