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USA. Fentanyl in cocaine: The deadly truth of new drugs cocktail (Video)

The US government has warned that a surge in cocaine deaths is being exacerbated by the presence of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid 80-100 times stronger than morphine. (BBC, 26.11.2018, Video, 09:55)

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-46350497/fentanyl-in-cocaine-the-deadly-truth-of-new-drugs-cocktail

Historical Review: Opiate Addiction and Opioid Receptors.

Wang S.

Cell Transplant. 2018 Nov 13:963689718811060. doi: 10.1177/0963689718811060. 

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0963689718811060

INCB: Tramadol, review of the global situation

(INCB – International Narcotics Control Board, E/INCB/2018/Alert.7, 2018)

http://www.incb.org/documents/News/Alerts/Alert7_on_Control_of_Psychotropic_Substances_June_2018.pdf

Indien/Fentanyl. PGI doctors fear misuse of opioid stronger than heroin 

CHANDIGARH: North India's most prominent referral drug de-addiction centre at PGIMER has sounded a "red alert" after country's first illicit manufacturing drug unit of fentanyl - one of the most potent opioid prescription drugs - was busted recently at Indore. (Times of India, 20.11.2018)

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/pgi-doctors-fear-misuse-of-opioid-stronger-than-heroin/articleshow/66701820.cms

Will Widespread Synthetic Opioid Consumption Induce Epigenetic Consequences in Future Generations?

Gilardi F, Augsburger M, Thomas A.

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Jul 3;9:702. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00702.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037745/

Fentanyl: Use & OD Prevention Tips 

Hrsg.: The DOPE Project is a program of the Harm Reduction Coalition and is funded by the San Francisco Department of Public Health to coordinate San Francisco’s response to drug overdose. 2018

https://harmreduction.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/DOPE_FentanylUseBrochure.pdf

An overview of abuse-deterrent opioids and recommendations for practical patient care.

Adler JA, Mallick-Searle T.

J Multidiscip Healthc. 2018 Jul 11;11:323-332. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S166915.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045950/

USA / Sufentanil. FDA Approves Powerful Opioid Despite Fears Of More Overdose Deaths

The drug approved Friday is a 30-microgram pill form of sufentanil, a powerful, 34-year-old opioid commonly used after surgery and in emergency rooms. Each pill, placed under the tongue for quick absorption, would have the same impact as five milligrams of intravenous morphine. Each would come in a plastic applicator that looks like a syringe.

The drug is intended for use within health-care settings and perhaps on the battlefield. It would not be available in retail pharmacies. (atforum, USA, 12.11.2018)

http://atforum.com/2018/11/fda-approves-powerful-opioid-despite-fears-of-more-overdose-deaths/

Schutzmechanismus der Zellen schwächt Opiatwirkung ab

Jena – Eine Toleranzentwicklung kann bei der Opiattherapie bekanntlich eine Vervielfachung der Dosis notwendig machen, um die gewünschte Schmerzlinderung zu erzielen. Mechanismen, die zur Desensibilisierung der Opioidrezeptoren führen, hat jetzt ein internationales Wissenschaftlerteam aus Jena, Sydney, Melbourne und Marburg beschrieben. (aerzteblatt.de, 03.08.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/96862/Schutzmechanismus-der-Zellen-schwaecht-Opiatwirkung-ab

Desomorphine. How a flesh-eating drug containing paint thinner and phosphorous is causing a global crisis

Desomorphine has been in the news a lot lately. Never heard of it? That’s quite possible. But you may well have heard its street name: “Krokodil”. However you know it, it’s a cheap substitute for heroin that has been widely branded as a “flesh-eating zombie drug” – and it’s bad news. (The Independent, UK, 13.11.2018)

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/flesh-eating-drug-krokodil-desomorphine-heroin-substitute-russia-a8621641.html

Kanada. Nearly all drugs sold as heroin in Vancouver contain fentanyl, study finds

More than 80 per cent of drugs sold as heroin on the streets of Vancouver don’t contain any heroin at all, while nearly all of them contain the powerful synthetic opioid fentanyl, according to the findings of a pilot project led by the B.C. Centre on Substance Use (BCCSU). (The Globe and Mail, Kanada, 31.07.2018)

https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/canada/british-columbia/article-nearly-all-street-drugs-in-vancouver-contain-fentanyl-study-finds/

High Rates of Tramadol Use among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A Study of Hair Analysis of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use.

Martin O. Olsson, Agneta Öjehagen, Louise Brådvik, Robert Kronstrand, and Anders Håkansson

Journal of Addiction, vol. 2017, Article ID 6716929, 9 pages, 2017. doi.org/10.1155/2017/6716929.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2017/6716929/cta/

Pharmacotoxicology of Non-fentanyl Derived New Synthetic Opioids.

Solimini R, Pichini S, Pacifici R, Busardò FP, Giorgetti R.

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Jun 20;9:654. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00654. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020781/

Health, Human Rights: Criminalising pain? Scheduling tramadol would hurt those most in need

This blog post is published ahead of the 41st World Health Organisation's Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) meeting, which will critically review tramadol and issue a recommendation on its scheduling for the consideration of the 62nd Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. IDPC has submitted contribution to the ECDD's meeting on the matter. IDPC is of the view that scheduling tramadol is presently unnecessary and would be counter-productive in its effects on public health. (idpc - International Drug Policy Consortium, 29.10.2018)

https://idpc.net/blog/2018/10/criminalising-pain-scheduling-tramadol-would-hurt-those-most-in-need

[Neurobiology of opioid dependence].

Scherbaum N, Bonnet U.

Schmerz. 2018 Jun 26. doi: 10.1007/s00482-018-0304-8. [Epub ahead of print] German. 

Abstract

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00482-018-0304-8

Schmerztherapie: Tücken der Opioidrotation in der täglichen Routine

Schnabel, Alexander; Rittner, Heike

Dtsch Arztebl 2018; 115(42): A-1874 / B-1564 / C-1550

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/201939

Is tapentadol a potential Trojan horse in the postdextropropoxyphene era in India?

Basu A, Mahadevan J, Ithal D, Selvaraj S, Chand PK, Murthy P.

Indian J Pharmacol. 2018 Jan-Feb;50(1):44-46. doi: 10.4103/ijp.IJP_21_17.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5954633/

USA. How Fentanyl Is Contaminating America’s Cocaine Supply 

The super-potent drug has been the leading killer of the opioid epidemic — now it’s finding its way into illegal stimulants, and the death toll is rising. (Rolling Stone, USA, 09.10.2018)

https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-features/fentanyl-cocaine-how-contamination-happens-735155/

Neues Verfahren zeigt, wie Opioide im Gehirn (genau) wirken

Martinsried – Ein neues Verfahren, das tiefere Einblicke in die Reaktion des Gehirns auf Opioide erlaubt, haben Forscher aus Deutschland, Österreich und den USA in der Fachzeitschrift Science vorgestellt (doi 10.1126/science.aao4927). (aerzteblatt.de, 07.07.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/96292/Neues-Verfahren-zeigt-wie-Opioide-im-Gehirn-%28genau%29-wirken

Opioid, Withdrawal.

Shah M, Huecker MR.

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-.
2018 Sep 17.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526012/

Opioide bei chronischen Schmerzen - DAUERHAFT STARKE SCHMERZEN – WANN HELFEN OPIOIDE? Ärztliches Zentrum für Qualität in der Medizin (ÄZQ)

Im Auftrag von: Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung (KBV) und Bundesärztekammer (BÄK)

2. Auflage, 2018 DOI: 10.6101/AZQ/000409

https://www.patienten-information.de/kurzinformationen/arzneimittel-und-impfungen/opioide-bei-chronischen-schmerzen

Two new synthetic opioids to be placed under control across the EU - Council implementing decision to control cyclopropylfentanyl and methoxyacetylfentanyl.

(EMCDDA, Lissabon 28.09.2018 (News release No 6/2018))

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2018/6/council-implementing-decision-to-control-cyclopropylfentanyl-and-methoxyacetylfentanyl

Opiates increase the number of hypocretin-producing cells in human and mouse brain and reverse cataplexy in a mouse model of narcolepsy

By Thomas C. Thannickal, Joshi John, Ling Shan, Dick F. Swaab, Ming-Fung Wu, Lalini Ramanathan, Ronald McGregor, Keng-Tee Chew, Marcia Cornford, Akihiro Yamanaka, Ayumu Inutsuka, Rolf Fronczek, Gert Jan Lammers, Paul F. Worley, Jerome M. Siegel

Science Translational Medicine 27 Jun 2018 

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/10/447/eaao4953.full

UK. An ancient fix: traces of opium found in Bronze Age jug

Cyprus’s reputation as a party destination may date back to the Bronze Age. The first evidence of opium has been found in containers made on the island. (The Times, UK, 03.10.2018)

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/an-ancient-fix-traces-of-opium-found-in-bronze-age-jug-8m8jll7wj

Opiate könnten Narkolepsie lindern

Los Angeles – Die zufällige Entdeckung einer erhöhten Hypocretin-Konzentration im Gehirn von Drogentoten brachte US-Forscher auf die Idee, die Narkolepsie, die durch einen Mangel an Hypocretin ausgelöst wird, mit Opiaten zu behandeln. Erste tierexperimentelle Studien in Science Translational Medicine (2018; 10: eaao4953) zeigen, dass die Therapie erfolgreich sein könnte. (aerzteblatt.de, 29.06.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/96158/Opiate-koennten-Narkolepsie-lindern

Over-expression of CCK1 Receptor Reverse Morphine Dependence.

Hao L, Wen D, Gou H, Yu F, Cong B, Ma C.

Int J Pept Res Ther. 2018;24(3):471-477. doi: 10.1007/s10989-018-9696-7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096524/

Synthesis of opium alkaloids using electric current

A selective electrochemical reaction enables the synthesis of thebaine and offers a solution to a long-standing synthetic challenge. (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 28.06.2018)

https://idw-online.de/en/news698476

A bifunctional nociceptin and mu opioid receptor agonist is analgesic without opioid side effects in nonhuman primates

By Huiping Ding, Norikazu Kiguchi, Dennis Yasuda, Pankaj R. Daga, Willma E. Polgar, James J. Lu, Paul W. Czoty, Shiroh Kishioka, Nurulain T. Zaveri, Mei-Chuan Ko

Science Translational Medicine29 Aug 2018 

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/10/456/eaar3483

Synthese von Opium-Alkaloiden mithilfe von elektrischem Strom

Eine selektive elektrochemische Reaktion erlaubt die Darstellung von Thebain und löst eine altbekannte synthetische Herausforderung. (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 28.06.2018)

https://idw-online.de/de/news698449

Bifunktionales Opiat könnte gegen Schmerzen und bei Abhängigkeit helfen

Winston-Salem/North Carolina – Kann ein Opiat, das Schmerzen 100-mal stärker als Morphium lindert, frei von Risiken und Nebenwirkungen sein und sich sogar zur Behandlung einer Opiatabhängigkeit eignen? US-Forscher haben einen bifunktionalen Opiatagonisten erfolgreich an Primaten getestet (Science Translational Medicine2018; doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aar3483). (aerzteblatt.de, 31.08.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/97549/Bifunktionales-Opiat-koennte-gegen-Schmerzen-und-bei-Abhaengigkeit-helfen