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Oxycodon (Oxygesic®): Missbrauch, Abhängigkeit und tödliche Folgen durch Injektion zerstoßener Retardtabletten (Bekanntgabe) - Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft, 2003


A Systematic Review of Opioid Use Disorder and Related Biomarkers. 

Bryant BM, Eaton E, Li L. 

Front Psychiatry. 2021 Aug 11;12:708283. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.708283. PMID: 34456765; PMCID: PMC8385272.


"Etazene, safer than heroin and fentanyl": Non-fentanyl novel synthetic opioid listings on one darknet market. 

Lamy FR, Daniulaityte R, Barratt MJ, Lokala U, Sheth A, Carlson RG. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 May 31;225:108790. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108790. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34091156.



The rise of illicit fentanyls, stimulants and the fourth wave of the opioid overdose 


Ciccarone, Daniel 

Current Opinion in Psychiatry: July 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 344-350 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000717 


CDC. Opioids


USA. New High Potency Synthetic Opioid N-Pyrrolidino Etonitazene (Etonitazepyne) Linked to Overdoses Across United States

(CFSRE - Center for Forensic Science Research & Education, USA, Juni 2021)


Does the preparation for intravenous administration affect the composition of heroin injections? A controlled laboratory study. 

Andersen, J. M., Bogen, I. L., Karinen, R., Brochmann, G. W., Mørland, J., Vindenes, V., and Boix, F. (2021) Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15492. 


Commentary - Heroin purity and adulteration: an updated snapshot from the Italian Early Warning System. 

Tittarelli R, di Luca NM, Pacifici R, Pichini S, Del Rio A, Busardò FP. 

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020 Apr;24(8):4461-4466. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202004_21028. PMID: 32374014.


Süd-Afrika. The South African play that’s tackling the scourge of the street drug whoonga

The drug whoonga has plagued South African communities for at least a decade, yet only gained significant public attention when it appeared more visibly in the inner-city and surrounding suburbs of Durban, the major city in the country’s KwaZulu-Natal province. (Conversation, UK, 21.02.2021)


Expression of Opioid Receptors in Cells of the Immune System. 

Brejchova J, Holan V, Svoboda P. 

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 30;22(1):315. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010315. PMID: 33396783; PMCID: PMC7795304.


Abuse‐deterrent extended‐release oxycodone and risk of opioid‐related harm. 

Paljarvi, T., Strang, J., Quinn, P. D., Luciano, S., and Fazel, S. (2021) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15392. 


The dawn of a new synthetic opioid era: the need for innovative interventions. 

Pardo, B., Taylor, J., Caulkins, J., Reuter, P., and Kilmer, B. (2020) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15222.



Tapentadol: An Opioid of Abuse Acquired Online.

Ansley BS, Sethi R. 

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2020 Feb 20;22(1):19l02432. doi: 10.4088/PCC.19l02432. PMID: 32083817.


Direct dating reveals the early history of opium poppy in western Europe. 

Salavert A, Zazzo A, Martin L, Antolín F, Gauthier C, Thil F, Tombret O, Bouby L, Manen C, Mineo M, Mueller-Bieniek A, Piqué R, Rottoli M, Rovira N, Toulemonde F, Vostrovská I. 

Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 20;10(1):20263. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-76924-3. PMID: 33219318; PMCID: PMC7679390.


Postsurgical prescriptions for opioid naive patients and association with overdose and misuse: retrospective cohort study 

Brat Gabriel A, Agniel Denis, Beam Andrew, Yorkgitis Brian, Bicket Mark, Homer Mark et al. 

BMJ 2018; 360 :j5790 


Opioids After Surgery in the United States Versus the Rest of the World: The International Patterns of Opioid Prescribing (iPOP) Multicenter Study.

Kaafarani HMA, Han K, El Moheb M, Kongkaewpaisan N, Jia Z, El Hechi MW, van Wijck S, Breen K, Eid A, Rodriguez G, Kongwibulwut M, Nordestgaard AT, Sakran JV, Ezzeddine H, Joseph B, Hamidi M, Ortega C, Flores SL, Gutierrez-Sougarret BJ, Qin H, Yang J, Gao R, Wang Z, Gao Z, Prichayudh S, Durmaz S, van der Wilden G, Santin S, Ribeiro MAF Jr, Noppakunsomboom N, Alami R, El-Jamal L, Naamani D, Velmahos G, Lillemoe KD. 

Ann Surg. 2020 Dec;272(6):879-886. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004225. PMID: 32657939.



Relation between opioid consumption and inclusion of opioids in 137 national essential medicines lists

Richards GC, Aronson JK, Heneghan C, et al

BMJ Global Health 2020;5:e003563. 


U-47700 and Its Analogs: Non-Fentanyl Synthetic Opioids Impacting the Recreational Drug Market. 

Baumann, M.H.; Tocco, G.; Papsun, D.M.; Mohr, A.L.; Fogarty, M.F.; Krotulski, A.J. 

Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 895. 


Qualitative measurement of opioid effects on pain and dyspnea: gender difference in the sensitivity.

Nozaki-Taguchi N, Hayashida T, Isono S. 

JA Clin Rep. 2020 Oct 20;6(1):85. doi: 10.1186/s40981-020-00391-y. PMID: 33079325; PMCID: PMC7575662.


Kanada. New drug on Montreal's streets even more potent than fentanyl: public health 

Isotonitazene, a chemically manufactured opioid, has killed at least one person in Montreal. Jean-Francois Mary of harm reduction organization Cactus Montreal said similar drugs are often made in illegal labs, where cross-contamination and dosage size are risky variables. (CTV News, Kanada, 07.11.2020)


Deutschrap auf Tilidin

Tief bollernde Bässe, teure Autos … und Tilidin. Es heißt ja, dass jedes Musikgenre seine Drogen hat. Unter manchen Deutschrappern scheint es das Schmerzmittel Tilidin zu sein. (drugcom.de, November 2020)


Arzneimittelmissbrauch/Jugend: Drogen aus der Apotheke

Nach Angaben der ABDA, Bundesvereinigung Deutscher Apothekerverbände, steht die Arzneimittelabhängigkeit mit mehr als zwei Millionen abhängigen Menschen bundesweit auf Platz zwei der Süchte – nach Tabak, aber vor Alkohol. Besonders Jugendliche sind anfällig für die „Legal Highs“. (DIE PTA IN DER APOTHEKE, 07.11.2020)


How mu-Opioid Receptor Recognizes Fentanyl. 

Vo Q, Mahinthichaichan P, Shen J, Ellis C. 

Res Sq [Preprint]. 2020 Sep 9:rs.3.rs-67888. doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-67888/v1. PMID: 32935088; PMCID: PMC7491576.


Key Evidence Supporting Prescription Opioids Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1997 to 2018

James Heyward, Thomas J. Moore, Jennifer Chen, Kristin Meek, Peter Lurie, and G. Caleb Alexander

Annals of Internal Medicine 0 0:0



Tilidin als Droge: Schmerzmittel-Missbrauch bei Jugendlichen 

Schmerzmittel sind medizinisch ein Segen. Werden sie aber als Droge missbraucht, kann das schlimme Folgen haben. 

Karlsruhe (dpa) l Rapper thematisieren es vielfach in ihren Songs, und ein Geständnis des Musikers Capital Bra zu seiner Medikamentenabhängigkeit machte kürzlich medial die Runde: Der Konsum des verschreibungspflichtigen Schmerzmedikaments Tilidin erlebt seit geraumer Zeit eine Art Revival bei Jugendlichen – transportiert und nach Expertenansicht auch befördert durch die Stars der Rapkultur und ihre Songs wie "Tilidin" von Capital Bra und Samra oder "Tilidin weg" von Bonez MC. (Tagesspiegel, 29.09.20209


Reformulated OxyContin's benefit against abuse remains unclear a decade later

A decade after Purdue Pharma LP changed OxyContin in an attempt to make it more difficult to abuse, U.S. health officials found there isn't enough evidence to show an overall benefit. (MedicalXpress, USA, 09.09.2020)


Tramadol for the Management of Opioid Withdrawal: A Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials. 

Shah K, Stout B, Caskey H. 

Cureus. 2020;12(7):e9128. Published 2020 Jul 11. doi:10.7759/cureus.9128


Emerging regulatory roles of opioid peptides, endogenous morphine, and opioid receptor subtypes in immunomodulatory processes: Metabolic, behavioral, and evolutionary perspectives 

Esch T, Kream RM, Stefano GB. 

[published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 19]. Immunol Lett. 2020;227:28-33. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2020.08.007


First report on brorphine: the next opioid on the deadly new psychoactive substances' horizon?

Verougstraete N, Vandeputte MM, Lyphout C, et al.

First [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 3]. J Anal Toxicol. 2020; doi:10.1093/jat/bkaa094



CYP2D6 Expression in Veterans Experiencing Opioid Overdose: A Postmortem Review. 

Boyle J, Stock CJ. 

Pharmgenomics Pers Med. 2020;13:289-293. Published 2020 Aug 11. doi:10.2147/PGPM.S261424