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Wie sich Opioide auf die Verkehrstüchtigkeit auswirken

(...) Das Team um Dr. Maren Cecilie Strand von der Abteilung für forensische Wissenschaften der Universitätsklinik Oslo nahm 22 gesunde Freiwillige in eine prospektive Studie auf und ließ sie Methadon (5 bzw. 10 mg), Buprenorphin (0,2 bzw. 0,4 mg sublingual) oder ein Placebo einnehmen. (Medical Tribune, 17.02.2019)

https://www.medical-tribune.de/medizin-und-forschung/artikel/wie-sich-opioide-auf-die-verkehrstuechtigkeit-auswirken/

Review article: Effective management of opioid withdrawal symptoms: A gateway to opioid dependence treatment.

Kosten TR, Baxter LE.

Am J Addict. 2019 Jan 31. doi: 10.1111/ajad.12862. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ajad.12862

Desomorphine. How a flesh-eating drug containing paint thinner and phosphorous is causing a global crisis

Desomorphine has been in the news a lot lately. Never heard of it? That’s quite possible. But you may well have heard its street name: “Krokodil”. However you know it, it’s a cheap substitute for heroin that has been widely branded as a “flesh-eating zombie drug” – and it’s bad news. (The Independent, UK, 13.11.2018)

https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/flesh-eating-drug-krokodil-desomorphine-heroin-substitute-russia-a8621641.html

Blockade of the human ether a-go-go related gene (hERG) potassium channel by fentanyl.

Tschirhart JN, Li W, Guo J, Zhang S.

Mol Pharmacol. 2019 Jan 21. pii: mol.118.114751. doi: 10.1124/mol.118.114751. 

http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2019/01/21/mol.118.114751.long

High Rates of Tramadol Use among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents in Malmö, Sweden: A Study of Hair Analysis of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use.

Martin O. Olsson, Agneta Öjehagen, Louise Brådvik, Robert Kronstrand, and Anders Håkansson

Journal of Addiction, vol. 2017, Article ID 6716929, 9 pages, 2017. doi.org/10.1155/2017/6716929.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2017/6716929/cta/

Non-Medical Use of Novel Synthetic Opioids: A New Challenge to Public Health.

Lovrecic B, Lovrecic M, Gabrovec B, Carli M, Pacini M, Maremmani AGI, Maremmani I.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jan 9;16(2). pii: E177. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16020177. Review.

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/2/177/htm

Health, Human Rights: Criminalising pain? Scheduling tramadol would hurt those most in need

This blog post is published ahead of the 41st World Health Organisation's Expert Committee on Drug Dependence (ECDD) meeting, which will critically review tramadol and issue a recommendation on its scheduling for the consideration of the 62nd Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. IDPC has submitted contribution to the ECDD's meeting on the matter. IDPC is of the view that scheduling tramadol is presently unnecessary and would be counter-productive in its effects on public health. (idpc - International Drug Policy Consortium, 29.10.2018)

https://idpc.net/blog/2018/10/criminalising-pain-scheduling-tramadol-would-hurt-those-most-in-need

Opioide: Keine Wirkung ohne Nebenwirkung

Pharmakologen des Universitätsklinikums Jena konnten durch genetische Veränderungen am Opioid-Rezeptor in Mäusen die Entwicklung einer Toleranz gegen Opioide fast komplett unterdrücken. Die schmerzmindernde Wirkung verbesserte sich sogar und hielt auch bei längerer Gabe an, Nebenwirkungen wie Atemdepression und Obstipation sowie Abhängigkeits- und Entzugssymptome blieben jedoch unverändert. Die jetzt in Nature Communications veröffentlichte Studie legt nahe, dass die Toleranzentwicklung von Opioiden über Phosphorylierung und Desensitisierung des Opioid-Rezeptors vermittelt wird. Diese Erkenntnisse können zur Entwicklung verbesserter Opioide genutzt werden. (Universitätsklinikum Jena, 21.01.2019)

https://idw-online.de/de/news709190

Schmerztherapie: Tücken der Opioidrotation in der täglichen Routine

Schnabel, Alexander; Rittner, Heike

Dtsch Arztebl 2018; 115(42): A-1874 / B-1564 / C-1550

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/201939

Phosphorylation-deficient G-protein-biased μ-opioid receptors improve analgesia and diminish tolerance but worsen opioid side effects. 

Kliewer A, et al. 

Nat. Comm. 2019, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08162-1

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-08162-1

USA. How Fentanyl Is Contaminating America’s Cocaine Supply 

The super-potent drug has been the leading killer of the opioid epidemic — now it’s finding its way into illegal stimulants, and the death toll is rising. (Rolling Stone, USA, 09.10.2018)

https://www.rollingstone.com/culture/culture-features/fentanyl-cocaine-how-contamination-happens-735155/

Notes from the Field: Fentanyl Drug Submissions — United States, 2010–2017. 

Springer YP, Gladden RM, O’Donnell J, Seth P. 

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019;68:41–43. doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6802a4

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6802a4.htm

Opioid, Withdrawal.

Shah M, Huecker MR.

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-.
2018 Sep 17.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526012/

Fentanyle: Verringerung des Risikos einer berufsbedingten Exposition des Strafverfolgungspersonals

Im Laufe der letzten Jahre gab es einen bedeutenden Anstieg bei der Verfügbarkeit von Fentanylen auf dem Drogenmarkt in Europa als Ergebnis der Massenproduktion in China und das online Vertriebs. 

Berichte über Todesfälle bei Drogenkonsumenten nahmen eben so erheblich zu.
In der Regel werden Fentanyle offen als "legale" Ersatzstoffe für illegale Opioide verkauft und ohne das Wissen der Konsumenten mit Heroin vermischt oder als Heroin und sonstige illegale Opioide verkauft.

In einigen Fällen setzt man sie auch zur Arzneimittelfälschungen ein und in einem geringen Maß werden sie mit anderen illegalen Drogen wie Kokain vermischt oder als solche verkauft. 

Angesichts der zunehmenden verfügbarkeit von vielen Terminen in Europa kann das Strafverfolgungspersonal bei der Ausübung seiner Arbeit darauf stoßen. (Europol, Den Haag, Dezember 2017,  in: Bundesverband der Ärztlichen Leiter Rettungsdienst Deutschland e.V.)

https://www.aelrd.de/index.php/downloads/category/13-medizin?download=111:2018-europol-mitteilung-fentanyle

Two new synthetic opioids to be placed under control across the EU - Council implementing decision to control cyclopropylfentanyl and methoxyacetylfentanyl.

(EMCDDA, Lissabon 28.09.2018 (News release No 6/2018))

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2018/6/council-implementing-decision-to-control-cyclopropylfentanyl-and-methoxyacetylfentanyl

Comparison between intravenous morphine versus fentanyl in acute pain relief in drug abusers with acute limb traumatic injury.

Vahedi HSM, Hajebi H, Vahidi E, Nejati A, Saeedi M.

World J Emerg Med. 2019;10(1):27-32. doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2019.01.004.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264977/

UK. An ancient fix: traces of opium found in Bronze Age jug

Cyprus’s reputation as a party destination may date back to the Bronze Age. The first evidence of opium has been found in containers made on the island. (The Times, UK, 03.10.2018)

https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/an-ancient-fix-traces-of-opium-found-in-bronze-age-jug-8m8jll7wj

Frequency, risk factors and symptomatology of iatrogenic withdrawal from opioids and benzodiazepines in critically Ill neonates, children and adults: A systematic review of clinical studies.

Duceppe MA, Perreault MM, Frenette AJ, Burry LD, Rico P, Lavoie A, Gélinas C, Mehta S, Dagenais M, Williamson DR.

J Clin Pharm Ther. 2018 Dec 19. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12787. 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jcpt.12787

Over-expression of CCK1 Receptor Reverse Morphine Dependence.

Hao L, Wen D, Gou H, Yu F, Cong B, Ma C.

Int J Pept Res Ther. 2018;24(3):471-477. doi: 10.1007/s10989-018-9696-7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096524/

USA. A Visual Journey through Addiction

Why do people start using opioids and why can’t they stop? Through interviews with users and experts, The Ney York Times created a visual presentation of how these drugs can hijack the brain. (New York Times, 18.12.2018)

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/us/addiction-heroin-opioids.html

A bifunctional nociceptin and mu opioid receptor agonist is analgesic without opioid side effects in nonhuman primates

By Huiping Ding, Norikazu Kiguchi, Dennis Yasuda, Pankaj R. Daga, Willma E. Polgar, James J. Lu, Paul W. Czoty, Shiroh Kishioka, Nurulain T. Zaveri, Mei-Chuan Ko

Science Translational Medicine29 Aug 2018 

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/10/456/eaar3483

USA. Fentanyl in cocaine: The deadly truth of new drugs cocktail (Video)

The US government has warned that a surge in cocaine deaths is being exacerbated by the presence of fentanyl, a synthetic opioid 80-100 times stronger than morphine. (BBC, 26.11.2018, Video, 09:55)

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-us-canada-46350497/fentanyl-in-cocaine-the-deadly-truth-of-new-drugs-cocktail

Bifunktionales Opiat könnte gegen Schmerzen und bei Abhängigkeit helfen

Winston-Salem/North Carolina – Kann ein Opiat, das Schmerzen 100-mal stärker als Morphium lindert, frei von Risiken und Nebenwirkungen sein und sich sogar zur Behandlung einer Opiatabhängigkeit eignen? US-Forscher haben einen bifunktionalen Opiatagonisten erfolgreich an Primaten getestet (Science Translational Medicine2018; doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aar3483). (aerzteblatt.de, 31.08.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/97549/Bifunktionales-Opiat-koennte-gegen-Schmerzen-und-bei-Abhaengigkeit-helfen

Historical Review: Opiate Addiction and Opioid Receptors.

Wang S.

Cell Transplant. 2018 Nov 13:963689718811060. doi: 10.1177/0963689718811060. 

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0963689718811060

INCB: Tramadol, review of the global situation

(INCB – International Narcotics Control Board, E/INCB/2018/Alert.7, 2018)

http://www.incb.org/documents/News/Alerts/Alert7_on_Control_of_Psychotropic_Substances_June_2018.pdf

Indien/Fentanyl. PGI doctors fear misuse of opioid stronger than heroin 

CHANDIGARH: North India's most prominent referral drug de-addiction centre at PGIMER has sounded a "red alert" after country's first illicit manufacturing drug unit of fentanyl - one of the most potent opioid prescription drugs - was busted recently at Indore. (Times of India, 20.11.2018)

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chandigarh/pgi-doctors-fear-misuse-of-opioid-stronger-than-heroin/articleshow/66701820.cms

Will Widespread Synthetic Opioid Consumption Induce Epigenetic Consequences in Future Generations?

Gilardi F, Augsburger M, Thomas A.

Front Pharmacol. 2018 Jul 3;9:702. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00702.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6037745/

Fentanyl: Use & OD Prevention Tips 

Hrsg.: The DOPE Project is a program of the Harm Reduction Coalition and is funded by the San Francisco Department of Public Health to coordinate San Francisco’s response to drug overdose. 2018

https://harmreduction.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/DOPE_FentanylUseBrochure.pdf

An overview of abuse-deterrent opioids and recommendations for practical patient care.

Adler JA, Mallick-Searle T.

J Multidiscip Healthc. 2018 Jul 11;11:323-332. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S166915.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6045950/

USA / Sufentanil. FDA Approves Powerful Opioid Despite Fears Of More Overdose Deaths

The drug approved Friday is a 30-microgram pill form of sufentanil, a powerful, 34-year-old opioid commonly used after surgery and in emergency rooms. Each pill, placed under the tongue for quick absorption, would have the same impact as five milligrams of intravenous morphine. Each would come in a plastic applicator that looks like a syringe.

The drug is intended for use within health-care settings and perhaps on the battlefield. It would not be available in retail pharmacies. (atforum, USA, 12.11.2018)

http://atforum.com/2018/11/fda-approves-powerful-opioid-despite-fears-of-more-overdose-deaths/