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Misuse of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues 

This report advises government on the number and nature of known fentanyl analogues, risk factors, pharmacology, toxic effects and misuse and associated harms. (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, UK, 03.01.2020)

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/misuse-of-fentanyl-and-fentanyl-analogues

Pain sensitivity and analgesic use among 10,486 adults: the Tromsø study.

Samuelsen PJ, Nielsen CS, Wilsgaard T, Stubhaug A, Svendsen K, Eggen AE.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017 Jun 9;18(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s40360-017-0149-2.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466805/

Opioid receptor modulation of neural circuits in depression: What can be learned from preclinical data?

Puryear CB, Brooks J, Tan L, Smith K, Li Y, Cunningham J, Todtenkopf MS, Dean RL, Sanchez C.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Dec 9;108:658-678. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.12.007. 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763419306323?via%3Dihub

Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

Khademi H, Malekzadeh R, Pourshams A, Jafari E, Salahi R, Semnani S, Abaie B, Islami F, Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Etemadi A, Byrnes G, Abnet CC, Dawsey SM, Day NE, Pharoah PD, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Kamangar F.

BMJ. 2012 Apr 17;344:e2502. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e2502.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3328545/

Evaluation of dynorphin and kappa-opioid receptor level in the human blood lymphocytes and plasma: Possible role as a biomarker in severe opioid use disorder.

Shahkarami K, Vousooghi N, Golab F, Mohsenzadeh A, Baharvand P, Sadat-Shirazi MS, Babhadi-Ashar N, Shakeri A, Zarrindast MR.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Dec 1;205:107638. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107638. 

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31710992

Tramadol. 'Safer opioid' has sparked a crisis in vulnerable countries

Reports rolled in with escalating urgency—pills seized by the truckload, pills swallowed by schoolchildren, pills in the pockets of dead terrorists. 

These pills, the world has been told, are safer than the OxyContins, the Vicodins, the fentanyls that have wreaked so much devastation. But now they are the root of what the United Nations named "the other opioid crisis"—an epidemic featured in fewer headlines than the American one, as it rages through the planet's most vulnerable countries. (MedicalXpress, USA, 13.12.2019)

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-12-safer-opioid-crisis-vulnerable-countries.html

American College of Emergency Physicians: Opioid Resources 

Every day emergency physicians see the devastating consequences of the opioid epidemic. ACEP is one of the leaders in the battle against this epidemic.

Here are some of the initiative and resources ACEP has developed and continues to work on to empower emergency physicians. (American College of Emergency Physicians, USA, Dezember 2019)

https://www.acep.org/by-medical-focus/mental-health--substance-abuse/opioids/

A Survey of Molecular Imaging of Opioid Receptors.

Cumming P, Marton J, Lilius TO, Olberg DE, Rominger A.

Molecules. 2019 Nov 19;24(22). pii: E4190. doi: 10.3390/molecules24224190. 

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/22/4190

The rising crisis of illicit fentanyl use, overdose, and potential therapeutic strategies.

Han Y, Yan W, Zheng Y, Khan MZ, Yuan K, Lu L.

Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Nov 11;9(1):282. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0625-0. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848196/

Estimation of the Number of People With Opioid Addiction in Germany.

Kraus L, Seitz NN, Schulte B, Cremer-Schaeffer P, Braun B, Verthein U, Pfeiffer-Gerschel T.

Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2019 Mar 1;116(9):137-143. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0137.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460011/

An Exploratory Study of Units of Reporting Opium Use in Iran: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies.

Mohebbi E, Kamangar F, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Haghdoost AA, Etemadi A, Amirzadeh S, Najafi F, Shafeie F, Fakhari A, Ghaleban K, Shahid-Sales S, Hosseini ZS, Honarvar MR, Majnooni F, Hadji M, Zendehdel K.

Arch Iran Med. 2019 Oct 1;22(10):541-545.

http://www.aimjournal.ir/Article/aim-8336

Acute severe intoxication with cyclopropylfentanyl, a novel synthetic opioid.

Wilde M, Sommer MJ, Auwärter V, Hermanns-Clausen M.

Toxicol Lett. 2019 Nov 25. pii: S0378-4274(19)30382-0. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.11.025. 

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31778775

Fentanyl assisted treatment: a possible role in the opioid overdose epidemic?

Bardwell G, Wood E, Brar R.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2019 Nov 11;14(1):50. doi: 10.1186/s13011-019-0241-2.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849248/

Discovery of Novel µ-Opioid Receptor Inverse Agonist from a Combinatorial Library of Tetrapeptides through Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

Poli G, Dimmito MP, Mollica A, Zengin G, Benyhe S, Zador F, Stefanucci A.

Molecules. 2019 Oct 27;24(21). pii: E3872. doi: 10.3390/molecules24213872.

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/21/3872

USA. Potent Synthetic Opioid - Isotonitazene - Recently Identified in the Midwestern United States

Purpose: The objective of this public announcement is to notify public health and public safety, law enforcement, clinicians, medical examiners and coroners, laboratory personnel, and all other related communities about new information surrounding the emergent synthetic opioid isotonitazene.  (csfre - Redefining Excellence in forensic Sciences, USA, November 2019)

https://www.npsdiscovery.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Public-Alert_Isotonitazene_NPS-Discovery_111919.pdf

What Will the Opioid Crisis Look Like in Five Years?

Few people had ever heard of fentanyl five years ago. By 2018 this synthetic opioid was implicated in more than 30,000 fatal overdoses in the United States. The next stage of the fast-changing opioid crisis may well depend on how the illegal drug markets morph in the years to come. (RAND Corporation, USA, 18.11.2019)

https://www.rand.org/blog/2019/11/what-will-the-opioid-crisis-look-like-in-five-years.html

The fentanyl epidemic in Estonia: opportunities for a comprehensive public health response

Uuskula, Anneli et al.

The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 6, Issue 12, 985 

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpsy/article/PIIS2215-0366(19)30436-5/fulltext

Peripherer Opioid-Agonist bessert Juckreiz bei Dialyse-Patienten

New York – Der urämische Pruritus, der die meisten Dialyse-Patienten quält, lässt sich durch Opiate lindern. Ein Opioid-Agonist, der nur die peripheren Kappa-Rezeptoren stimuliert, hat sich in einer Phase-3-Studie im New England Journal of Medicine (2019; doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1912770) als sicher und effektiv erwiesen. (aerzteblatt.de, 11.11.2019)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/107333/Peripherer-Opioid-Agonist-bessert-Juckreiz-bei-Dialyse-Patienten

USA. An opioid more deadly than fentanyl found on Seattle streets (Carfentanil)

SEATTLE (KOMO) -- Right in the midst of the opioid crisis, another illicit drug has hit the streets of Seattle. Experts say it's more potent and deadly than other opiods.

The DEA says carfentanil is 10,000 times more potent than morphine and 100 times stronger than fentanyl. It was first detected in Seattle in March. Experts insists its usage is "very rare" in the area, but nonetheless, it's surfaced in the city. (komonews.com, USA, 12.11.2019)

https://komonews.com/news/local/carfentanil-deadly-drug-has-been-detected-in-seattle

G protein-biased kratom-alkaloids and synthetic carfentanil-amide opioids as potential treatments for alcohol use disorder.

Gutridge AM, Robins MT, Cassell RJ, Uprety R, Mores KL, Ko MJ, Pasternak GW, Majumdar S, van Rijn RM.

Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Nov 8. doi: 10.1111/bph.14913.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31705528

How Germany averted an opioid crisis

Unlike in the U.S., opioids have never emerged as a front-line medical treatment in Germany. (NBC News, USA, 19.10.2019)

https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/how-germany-averted-opioid-crisis-n1068286

Allostatic Changes in the cAMP System Drive Opioid-Induced Adaptation in Striatal Dopamine Signaling

Muntean, Brian S. et al.

Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 4, 946 - 960.e2 

https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(19)31222-7

Fentanyl depression of respiration: comparison with heroin and morphine.

Hill R, Santhakumar R, Dewey W, Kelly E, Henderson G.

Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1111/bph.14860. 

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31499594

Identification of a novel fentanyl analogue: p-hydroxy-butyrylfentanyl.

Oldenhof S, Ten Pierick A, Bruinsma J, Eustace S, Hulshof J, van den Berg J, Hoitink M.

Drug Test Anal. 2019 Sep 13. doi: 10.1002/dta.2695. 

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31518047

Physiology, Opioid Receptor

Dhaliwal A, Gupta M.

StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.
2019 Aug 29.

PMID: 31536249

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK546642/

Use of Kratom, an Opioid-like Traditional Herb, in Pregnancy.

Smid MC, Charles JE, Gordon AJ, Wright TE.

Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Oct;132(4):926-928. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002871.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30204686

Opioids and their endocrine effects: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

de Vries F, Bruin M, Lobatto DJ, Dekkers OM, Schoones JW, van Furth WR, Pereira AM, Karavitaki N, Biermasz NR, Zamanipoor Najafabadi AH.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep 12. pii: dgz022. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgz022.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31511863

Preference for drugs containing fentanyl from a cross-sectional survey of people who use illicit opioids in three United States cities

Kenneth B.Morales, Ju NyeongPark, Jennifer L.Glick, SabaRouhani, Traci C.Green, Susan G.Sherman

Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 204, 1 November 2019, doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107547

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871619303163

Fentanyl auf Europareise

In manchen Nachbarländern sind synthetische Opioide bereits gefragter als Heroin. Wird Fentanyl bald die neue deutsche Welle auf dem Drogenmarkt? (doccheck.com, 25.09.2019)

https://www.doccheck.com/de/detail/articles/23208-fentanyl-auf-europareise

Diskussion. Schlusswort - In Reply (zu dem Beitrag Schätzung der Anzahl von Personen mit einer Opioidabhängigkeit)

Kraus, Ludwig

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019; 116: 459; DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0459b

zu dem Beitrag Schätzung der Anzahl von Personen mit einer Opioidabhängigkeit von Prof. Dr. phil. Ludwig Kraus, Dr. phil. Nicki-Nils Seitz, Dr. rer. medic. Bernd Schulte, Dr. med. Peter Cremer-Schaeffer, Dr. phil. Barbara Braun, PD Dr. phil. Uwe Verthein, Dr. hum. biol. Tim Pfeiffer-Gerschel in Heft 9/2019

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/208457/Schlusswort