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Smartphone erkennt Opiatüberdosierung an verminderten Atembewegungen

Seattle – US-Ingenieure haben eine Smartphone-App entwickelt, die bei Opiat­anwendern eine Atemdepression erkennt und automatisch einen Notruf sendet. Erste Tests in einem Drogenkonsumraum und im Operationssaal verliefen positiv, wie eine Studie in Science Translational Medicine(2019; 11: eaau8914) zeigt. (aerzteblatt.de, 10.01.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/100273/Smartphone-erkennt-Opiatueberdosierung-an-verminderten-Atembewegungen

Opioid overdose detection using smartphones

Rajalakshmi Nandakumar, Shyamnath Gollakota1, and Jacob E. Sunshine

Science Translational Medicine  09 Jan 2019: Vol. 11, Issue 474, eaau8914, DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau8914 

Abstract

http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/11/474/eaau8914

USA. Drug wholesalers drove fentanyl's deadly rise, report concludes

Fentanyl, a powerful synthetic opioid implicated in nearly 29,000 overdose deaths in the United States last year, most likely spread because of heroin and prescription pill shortages, and also because it was cheaper for drug wholesalers than heroin, according to a report on illicit US drug markets by researchers at UC San Francisco. 

First synthesized in a Belgian lab in 1960, illicitly produced fentanyl has swept through U.S. drug markets in waves, the latest beginning in 2013, and has claimed an extraordinary number of lives. The researchers who wrote the report said having a better understanding of whether fentanyl's deadly spread is being driven by the economic imperatives of suppliers or the tastes of drug users would help policymakers find ways to curb it.

Made entirely in the lab, fentanyl is far more powerful and much cheaper to produce than heroin, which is derived from poppy opium. It is usually sold deceptively—as heroin or brand name prescription drugs like OxyContin and Xanax. The researchers said drug users and street-level dealers, who may also be using the drugs, often don't know whether they are taking or selling drugs adulterated with fentanyl, since it is added to the supply higher up the distribution chain. Therefore, the researchers said, demand from drug users is unlikely to have played a role in its spread. (University of California, San Francisco, 04.12.2018)

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-12-drug-wholesalers-drove-fentanyl-deadly.html

The opioid death crisis in Canada: crucial lessons for public health.

Fischer B, Pang M, Tyndall M.

Lancet Public Health. 2018 Dec 19. pii: S2468-2667(18)30232-9. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30232-9.

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(18)30232-9/fulltext

USA. Amerikaner sterben immer früher - Die Lebenserwartung ist in den USA im vergangenen Jahr zum dritten Mal in Folge gesunken. Die Entwicklung ist einzigartig für ein hochentwickeltes Land.

Die Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) haben am Donnerstag zwei neue Berichte publiziert, und gut waren die Nachrichten nicht. Überdosen vor allem mit synthetischen Opioiden haben im letzten Jahr mehr als 70 000 Amerikanerinnen und Amerikaner das Leben gekostet. Zusammen mit einer um 3,7 Prozent höheren Suizidrate hat dies erneut ein Sinken der durchschnittlichen Lebenserwartung zur Folge. (NZZ – Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 30.11.2018)

https://www.nzz.ch/international/drogen-und-suizide-amerikaner-sterben-immer-frueher-ld.1440845

Frequency and associated risk factors of non-fatal overdose reported by pregnant women with opioid use disorder.

Bagley SM, Cabral H, Saia K, Brown A, Lloyd-Travaglini C, Walley AY, Rose-Jacobs R.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2018 Dec 14;13(1):26. doi: 10.1186/s13722-018-0126-0.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295054/

USA. Drogenmissbrauch und steigende Suizidrate lassen Lebenserwartung in USA sinken

Tampa – Die um sich greifende Drogenepidemie und eine zunehmende Zahl von Suiziden lassen die durchschnittliche Lebenserwartung der US-Bürger sinken. Die Lebenserwartung habe 2017 bei 78,6 Jahren gelegen und damit 0,1 Jahre unter dem Wert des Vorjahres, teilte die US-Gesundheitsbehörde CDC gestern mit. Die Behörde kommentierte die Entwicklung mit großer Sorge und sprach von einem „Weckruf“. (aerzteblatt.de, 29.11.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/99494/Drogenmissbrauch-und-steigende-Suizidrate-lassen-Lebenserwartung-in-USA-sinken

Drug, Opioid-Involved, and Heroin-Involved Overdose Deaths Among American Indians and Alaska Natives - Washington, 1999-2015.

Joshi S, Weiser T, Warren-Mears V.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Dec 21;67(50):1384-1387. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6750a2.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm6750a2.htm

Trends in pregnancy-associated mortality involving opioids in the United States, 2007-2016.

Gemmill A, Kiang MV, Alexander MJ.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep 28. pii: S0002-9378(18)30820-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.09.028. 

https://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(18)30820-2/fulltext

Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths - United States, 2013-2017.

Scholl L, Seth P, Kariisa M, Wilson N, Baldwin G.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jan 4;67(5152):1419-1427. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm675152e1.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm675152e1.htm

Opioid Deaths: Trends, Biomarkers, and Potential Drug Interactions Revealed by Decision Tree Analyses.

Saad MH, Savonen CL, Rumschlag M, Todi SV, Schmidt CJ, Bannon MJ.

Front Neurosci. 2018 Oct 23;12:728. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00728. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206231/

USA. Fentanyl Intoxication Deaths Highlighted in All 2018 NDEWS Sentinel Community Site Reports; Four Sites Report Fentanyl in More Than Half of All Drug Deaths

(...)..While all 12 of the Sentinel Community Epidemiologist (SCEs) reported drug intoxication deaths involving fentanyl in their sites, between 57% and 70% of the deaths in New York City, Maine, Wayne County (Detroit Area), and Philadelphia involved fentanyl and/or fentanyl analogs (see figure). In New York City and Philadelphia, fentanyl and/or fentanyl analogs were the most frequently detected drugs in drug intoxication deaths. (CESAR - Center for Substance Abuse Research at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, A Publication of the National Drug Early Warning System (NDEWS), Issue 7, 20.12.2018)

https://ndews.umd.edu/sites/ndews.umd.edu/files/ndews-news-issue-7-december-2018.pdf

Premature Mortality From Drug Overdoses: A Comparative Analysis of 13 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Member Countries With High-Quality Death Certificate Data, 2001 to 2015. 

Chen Y, Shiels MS, Thomas D, Freedman ND, de González AB. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print ] doi: 10.7326/M18-2415

Abstract

http://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/2714295/premature-mortality-from-drug-overdoses-comparative-analysis-13-organisation-economic

Australien. 'Dangerous orange pill' prompts Australia festival warning

Music festival-goers across Australia have been warned about a "dangerous orange pill", after a young man died of a suspected drug overdose. (BBC, 31.12.2018)

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-46718413

Clinical Characteristics and Factors Associated With Mortality in First-Episode Infective Endocarditis Among Persons Who Inject Drugs.

Rodger L, Glockler-Lauf SD, Shojaei E, et al. 

JAMA Netw Open.2018;1(7):e185220. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.5220

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2715617

KANADA / Vancouver. Mayor’s Overdose Emergency Task Force - Recommendations for Immediate Action on the Overdose Crisis

(City of Vancouver, 20.12.2018)

https://council.vancouver.ca/20181220/documents/spec1.pdf

„Sudden sniffing death“: Herztod durch Deodorant

Rotterdam – Der Versuch eines Drogensüchtigen, sich während einer Rehabehandlung mittels Inhalation eines Deodorants in einen Rausch zu versetzen, endete tödlich. Der 19-Jährige starb nach mehreren vergeblichen Reanimationen am Herzversagen, berichten Intensivmediziner in BMJ Case Reports(2018; doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-224345). (aerzteblatt.de, 19.11.2018)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/99207/Sudden-sniffing-death-Herztod-durch-Deodorant

Rigidity, dyskinesia and other atypical overdose presentations observed at a supervised injection site, Vancouver, Canada

Mai-Lei Woo Kinshella, Tim Gauthier and Mark Lysyshyn 

Harm Reduction Journal2018, 15:64, doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0271-5

https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12954-018-0271-5

Australien/Kanada. Opioid harm in Australia: and comparisons between Australia and Canada

Opioid use and its associated harms is an issue of great public health interest, both within Australia and internationally. This report shows that opioid harms are an issue in both Australia and Canada. Rates of opioid deaths and opioid poisoning hospitalisations in Australia increased in the last 10 years. In 2016, pharmaceutical opioids were involved in more opioid deaths and opioid poisoning hospitalisations than heroin. 

Australian Government, Australian Institute for Health and Welfare, 09.11.2018, ISBN: 978-1-76054-436-2

https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/illicit-use-of-drugs/opioid-harm-in-australia/contents/table-of-contents

Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths — United States, 2013–2017. MMWR

Scholl L, Seth P, Kariisa M, Wilson N, Baldwin G. 

Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 21 December 2018. doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm675152e1

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/wr/mm675152e1.htm

Lethal Fentanyl and Cocaine Intoxication.

Khatri UG, Viner K, Perrone J.

N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 1;379(18):1782. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1809521.

https://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMc1809521

USA / Washington. Falling out - A generation of African American heroin users is dying in the opioid epidemic nobody talks about. The nation’s capital is ground zero. (Washington Post, 18.12.2018)

https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/2018/local/opioid-epidemic-and-its-effect-on-african-americans

USA. Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

This data visualization presents provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. (CDC - National Center for Health Statistics, USA, Oktober 2018)

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vsrr/drug-overdose-data.htm

USA. Google Searches Could Predict Heroin Overdoses - Internet queries about opioids are linked to drug-related hospital admissions.

About 115 people nationwide die every day from opioid overdoses, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A lack of timely, granular data exacerbates the crisis; one study showed opioid deaths were undercounted by as many as 70,000 between 1999 and 2015, making it difficult for governments to respond. But now Internet searches have emerged as a data source to predict overdose clusters in cities or even specific neighborhoods—information that could aid local interventions that save lives. (Scientific American, 07.12.2018)

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/google-searches-could-predict-heroin-overdoses/

EMCDDA. Preventing overdose deaths in Europe (Perspectives on drugs) – update 2018 

Summary

More than 9 000 lives were reported to be lost to drug overdoses in Europe (28 EU Member States, Turkey and Norway) in 2016, the latest reporting year, and this is an underestimate. Reducing drug-related deaths therefore remains a major challenge for public health policy. This analysis describes some of the factors that increase the risk of fatal and non-fatal overdoses and a number of interventions developed to prevent these events. (EMCDDA,Lissabon,Oktober 2018)

http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/pods/preventing-overdose-deaths_en

Internet searches for opioids predict future emergency department heroin admissions.

Young SD, Zheng K, Chu LF, Humphreys K.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Sep 1;190:166-169. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.05.009.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30036853

Substance Use, Criminal Recidivism, and Mortality in Criminal Justice Clients: A Comparison between Men and Women.

Caroline Mannerfelt and Anders Håkansson

Journal of Addiction, vol. 2018, Article ID 1689637, 9 pages, 2018. doi.org/10.1155/2018/1689637.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2018/1689637/cta/

Kanada. Smaller communities feeling impact of opioid crisis in Canada

(...) Smaller Canadian communities are experiencing opioid poisoning hospitalization rates that are more than double those in Canada’s largest cities. For example, in 2017, Brantford’s opioid poisoning hospitalization rate was more than 3.5 times the Ontario average. (CIHI – Canadian Institute for Health Information, Dezember 2018)

https://www.cihi.ca/en/opioids-in-canada/2018/opioid-related-harms-in-canada/smaller-communities-feeling-impact-of-opioid-crisis-in-canada

Death after diagnosis of non-communicable disease comorbid conditions, stratified by injection drug use.

Lesko CR, Lau B, Chander G, Moore RD.

AIDS. 2018 Oct 15. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002054.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30325772

Consistency Between Opioid-Related Mortality Trends Derived From Poison Center and National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2006-2016.

Iwanicki JL, Severtson SG, Margolin Z, Dasgupta N, Green JL, Dart RC.

Am J Public Health. 2018 Dec;108(12):1639-1645. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2018.304728.

https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304728