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The rise of illicit fentanyls, stimulants and the fourth wave of the opioid overdose crisis, 

Ciccarone, Daniel 

Current Opinion in Psychiatry: July 2021 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 344-350 doi: 10.1097/YCO.0000000000000717 

https://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2021/07000/The_rise_of_illicit_fentanyls,_stimulants_and_the.4.aspx

Explaining the Differences in Opioid Overdose Deaths between Scotland and England/Wales: Implications for European Opioid Policies.

van Amsterdam J, van den Brink W, Pierce M. 

Eur Addict Res. 2021 May 7:1-14. doi: 10.1159/000516165. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33965949.

https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/516165

Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK): A Questionnaire to Assess Overdose Knowledge in Individuals Who Use Illicit or Prescribed Opioids, 

Dunn, Kelly E. PhD; Barrett, Frederick S. PhD; Yepez-Laubach, Claudia BA; Meyer, Andrew C. PhD; Hruska, Bryce J. PhD; Sigmon, Stacey C. PhD; Fingerhood, Michael MD; Bigelow, George E. PhD 

Journal of Addiction Medicine: September/October 2016 - Volume 10 - Issue 5 - p 314-323 doi: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000235 

https://journals.lww.com/journaladdictionmedicine/Fulltext/2016/10000/Brief_Opioid_Overdose_Knowledge__BOOK___A.4.aspx

Methadone overdose in patients following methadone maintenance treatment: A three years overview in the district of Bari (South-Italy). 

Favia M, Santoiemma I, Mita Q, Strisciullo G, Introna F, De Donno A. 

Clin Ter. 2021 May 5;172(3):247-249. doi: 10.7417/CT.2021.2323. PMID: 33956046.

https://www.clinicaterapeutica.it/2021/172/3/16_FAVIA.pdf

Steep increases in fentanyl-related mortality west of the Mississippi River: Recent evidence from county and state surveillance. 

Shover CL, Falasinnu TO, Dwyer CL, Santos NB, Cunningham NJ, Freedman RB, Vest NA, Humphreys K. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Nov 1;216:108314. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108314. Epub 2020 Sep 28. PMID: 33038637; PMCID: PMC7521591.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521591/

The Opioid Hydra: Understanding Overdose Mortality Epidemics and Syndemics Across the Rural-Urban Continuum. 

Peters DJ, Monnat SM, Hochstetler AL, Berg MT. 

Rural Sociol. 2020 Sep;85(3):589-622. doi: 10.1111/ruso.12307. Epub 2019 Oct 27. PMID: 33814639; PMCID: PMC8018687.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018687/

Opioid toxicity due to CNS depressant polypharmacy: A case report. 

Lee C, Wanson A, Frangou S, Chong D, Halpape K. 

Ment Health Clin. 2021 Mar 31;11(2):70-74. doi: 10.9740/mhc.2021.03.070. PMID: 33850686; PMCID: PMC8019539.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019539/

Knowledge, preparedness, and compassion fatigue among law enforcement officers who respond to opioid overdose. 

Carroll JJ, Mital S, Wolff J, Noonan RK, Martinez P, Podolsky MC, Killorin JC, Green TC. 

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Dec 1;217:108257. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108257. Epub 2020 Sep 7. PMID: 32947173; PMCID: PMC7475730.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475730/

The Role of Risk or Contributory Death Factors in Methadone-Related Fatalities: A Review and Pooled Analysis. 

Giorgetti A, Pascali J, Montisci M, Amico I, Bonvicini B, Fais P, Viero A, Giorgetti R, Cecchetto G, Viel G. 

Metabolites. 2021 Mar 22;11(3):189. doi: 10.3390/metabo11030189. PMID: 33810163; PMCID: PMC8004630.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004630/

Troponin, A Predictor of Mortality in Methadone Exposure: An Observational Prospective Study. 

Sheibani M, Mirfallah Nassiri AA, Abedtash A, McDonald R, Zamani N, Hassanian-Moghaddam H. 

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Apr 20;10(8):e018899. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.018899. Epub 2021 Apr 6. PMID: 33821671.

https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/JAHA.120.018899

Common Opioids Involved in Drug Poisoning Presenting to the Emergency Department: A Cross-sectional Study. 

Eizadi-Mood N, Haghshenas E, Sabzghabaee AM, Yaraghi A, Farajzadegan Z,

J Res Pharm Pract. 2021 Jan 11;9(4):202-207. doi: 10.4103/jrpp.JRPP_20_105. PMID: 33912503; PMCID: PMC8067901.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067901/

Drug-related deaths and mortality in Europe: update from the EMCDDA expert network

Summary

This report provides an update on drug-related deaths in Europe based primarily on presentations and discussions held at the 2019 meeting of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) expert network on drug-related deaths. The meeting brought together experts and representatives from over 40 countries and provided a platform for discussing new trends in and analyses of drug-induced deaths in Europe and beyond and responses to them. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, Mai 2021)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/system/files/publications/13762/TD0221591ENN.pdf

Poisoning Deaths Associated With Buprenorphine Almost Always Involve Sedatives or Other Opioids

Buprenorphine has a favorable safety profile because of its partial agonist and ceiling respiratory depression effects. However, there are poisoning deaths associated with it. Researchers used data from autopsies of sudden and unexpected deaths in Finland, which has high rates of illicit buprenorphine use, to investigate the extent to which these deaths were associated with the use of other substances. In Finland, all sudden and unexpected deaths (12% of all deaths in this study period) are investigated with autopsy, including comprehensive toxicology in 75%. (Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Health: Current Evidence, USA, März-April 2021)

http://www.bu.edu/aodhealth/2021/04/29/poisoning-deaths-associated-with-buprenorphine-almost-always-involve-sedatives-or-other-opioids/

Australien. Trends in Drug-Induced Deaths in Australia, 1997-2019

Agata Chrzanowska, Nicola Man, Rachel Sutherland, Louisa Degenhardt, and Amy Peacock 

National Illicit Drug Indicators Project (NIDIP) Reports, NDARC - The National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Australien, 15.04.2021)

https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource-analytics/trends-drug-induced-deaths-australia-1997-2019

USA. Overdose Deaths Surged In Pandemic, As More Drugs Were Laced With Fentanyl

Researchers gathered for a conference on addiction this week received a grim update on the growing spread of street drugs laced with deadly synthetic opioids including fentanyl. (NPR – National Public Radio, USA, 22.04.2021)

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2021/04/22/989833102/overdose-deaths-surged-in-pandemic-as-more-drugs-were-laced-with-fentanyl

USA. San Francisco Contends With a Different Sort of Epidemic: Drug Deaths

More people died from overdoses than from the coronavirus in San Francisco last year. Some think the toll, tied to homelessness, should force the city to re-examine its approach to illicit drugs. (New York Times, USA, 23.04.2021)

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/23/us/fentanyl-overdoses-san-francisco.html

Co-involvement of opioids in drug overdose deaths involving cocaine and psychostimulants. 

Hedegaard H, Miniño AM, Warner M. 

NCHS Data Brief, no 406. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2021. doi.org/10.15620/cdc:103966external icon.

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db406.htm

Trends in drug-induced deaths in Australia, 1997-2019.

Chrzanowska, A., Man, N., Sutherland, R., Degenhardt, L., & Peacock, A. (2021). 

Drug Trends Bulletin Series. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney.

https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/resource-analytics/trends-drug-induced-deaths-australia-1997-2019/

USA. More Than 87,000 Americans Died of Overdoses in One Year

A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) finds more than 87,000 Americans died of overdoses in the 12-month period that ended in September — a 29% increase from the previous year.

The number of overdoses was higher than any year since the opioid epidemic began in the 1990s, The New York Times reports. The largest increase took place in April and May, when people were experiencing fear and stress from the pandemic, the strictest lockdown measures were in effect, and job losses were on the rise. (Partnership to end Addiction, USA, April 2021)

https://drugfree.org/drug-and-alcohol-news/more-than-87000-americans-died-of-overdoses-in-one-year

A Fatal Case of Opioid Intoxication After Raw Poppy Plant Ingestion. 

Bozan G, Ulukapi HB, Oncul U, Levent S, Dinleyici EC. 

Cureus. 2021 Feb 6;13(2):e13176. doi: 10.7759/cureus.13176. PMID: 33717721; PMCID: PMC7939539.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939539/

Death after emergency department visits for opioid overdose in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort analysis. 

Moe J, Chong M, Zhao B, Scheuermeyer FX, Purssell R, Slaunwhite A. 

CMAJ Open. 2021 Mar 17;9(1):E242-E251. doi: 10.9778/cmajo.20200169. PMID: 33731425.

http://cmajopen.ca/content/9/1/E242.long

WHO. Community management of opioid overdose. 

World Health Organization. (‎2014)‎. apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/137462

https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/137462/9789241548816_eng.pdf

Circumstances of overdose among suburban women who use opioids: Extending an urban analysis informed by drug, set, and setting. 

Lamonica AK, Boeri M, Turner J. 

Int J Drug Policy. 2020 Dec 26;90:103082. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.103082. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33373906.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395920304205

Cannabis Use and Nonfatal Opioid Overdose among Patients Enrolled in Methadone Maintenance Treatment. 

Bryson WC, Morasco BJ, Cotton BP, Thielke SM. 

Subst Use Misuse. 2021;56(5):697-703. doi: 10.1080/10826084.2021.1892137. Epub 2021 Mar 22. PMID: 33749499.

Abstract

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33749499/

Opioid use disorder and overdose among youth following an initial opioid prescription. 

Hadland, S. E., Bagley, S. M., Gai, M. J., Earlywine, J. J., Schoenberger, S. F., Morgan, J. R., and Barocas, J. A. (2021) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.15487.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/add.15487

USA. CDC: Opioid Overdose.

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA, 2921

https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/index.html

Periods of altered risk for non-fatal drug overdose: a self-controlled case series

Keen, Claire et al.

The Lancet Public Health, Volume 6, Issue 4, e249 - e259 

https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(21)00007-4/fulltext

Impacts of overdose: Evaluating the effects of grief and loss from overdose on people who inject drugs and developing an intervention to address them

Helping people who inject drugs build resilience in their communities amidst ongoing grief and loss of people close to them.

MAp Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Kanada, 19.02.2021

https://maphealth.ca/wp-content/uploads/Bayoumi_HRW_BriefReport.pdf

Schottland. The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh publishes report on drug-related deaths in Scotland

The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (“the College”) has launched a new report on drug-related deaths in Scotland, based on the views of leading experts.

The report recognises that Scotland’s drug deaths crisis is complex, but says much more can be done to tackle the problem, including action on harm reduction and on the social determinants of drug use.

The College believes that bold policies, such as decriminalisation of the possession of drugs, safe drug consumption facilities, and rolling out a heroin assisted treatment programme in all major centres in Scotland should be considered to help reduce drug-related harms. (The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Schottland, 01.03.2021)

https://www.rcpe.ac.uk/sites/default/files/drugs_deaths_in_scotland_report_final_0.pdf

A large-scale retrospective study of opioid poisoning in New York State with implications for targeted interventions. 

Chen X, Hou W, Rashidian S, Wang Y, Zhao X, Leibowitz GS, Rosenthal RN, Saltz M, Saltz JH, Schoenfeld ER, Wang F. 

Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 4;11(1):5152. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84148-2. PMID: 33664282; PMCID: PMC7933431.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933431/