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Gender and drug policy: Exploring global innovative approaches to drug policy and incarceration

Across the Americas, drug policies have failed to make a significant dent in the drug trade, while corruption and organized crime continue to thrive. At the same time, these harmful drug policies disproportionately fall on the most vulnerable, including poor women who often enter the drug trade because of desperation, lack of opportunity, and coercion. Stuck in a vicious cycle, the incarceration of these women only heightens their situation of vulnerability and takes a toll on their families and communities. (IDCP, UK, 2017-2020, Artikelserie)

https://idpc.net/publications/2017/06/gender-and-drug-policy-exploring-global-innovative-approaches-to-drug-policy-and-incarceration

Opioid-related treatment, interventions, and outcomes among incarcerated persons: A systematic review.

Malta M, Varatharajan T, Russell C, Pang M, Bonato S, Fischer B (2019) 

PLoS Med 16(12): e1003002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003002

https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1003002

Longitudinal analysis of HIV-risk behaviors of participants in a randomized trial of prison-initiated buprenorphine.

Blue TR, Gordon MS, Schwartz RP, Couvillion K, Vocci FJ, Fitzgerald TT, O'Grady KE.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2019 Dec 2;14(1):45. doi: 10.1186/s13722-019-0172-2.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886176/

Opioid substitution therapy for people living in German prisons—inequality compared with civic sector.

Stöver, H., Jamin, D., Michels, I.I. et al. 

Harm Reduct J 16, 72 (2019) doi:10.1186/s12954-019-0340-4

https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12954-019-0340-4

Freiburg/Brsg. "Wir schaffen das zusammen" 

Drei Insassen der Freiburger Justizvollzugsanstalt erzählen ihre Geschichten – über Methadon, Vatergefühle und Familienbesuche im Gefängnis. (Badische Zeitung, 20.12.2019)

https://www.badische-zeitung.de/schuelertexte/wir-schaffen-das-zusammen--180584726.html

Acceptability and efficacy of naltrexone for criminal justice‐involved individuals with opioid use disorder: a systematic review and meta‐analysis.

Bahji, A., Carlone, D., and Altomare, J. ( 2019) 

Addiction, doi.org/10.1111/add.14946.

Abstract

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.14946?campaign=wolacceptedarticle

USA. ‘First Shot is Free’: Hundreds Incarcerated in Michigan Offered Opioid Blocker Shots

The Michigan Department of Corrections says more than 20% of its inmates have an opioid-use disorder. Wayne County Jail, the state’s largest, has similar numbers. (AT Forum, USA, 19.12.2019)

https://atforum.com/2019/12/first-shot-free-opioid-blocker-shots/

UK. Report: Unlocking the evidence: Understanding suicide in prisons

People in prison are significantly more likely to die by suicide than people in the general population.

In 2018 alone, there were 92 self-inflicted deaths in prisons in England and Wales. At Samaritans, we see the enormous scale of emotional distress in prisons – last year alone we provided emotional support to people in prison more than 300,000 times. We also see the wide range of concerns that underpin their distress.

Our report, Unlocking the evidence: Understanding suicide in prisons, brings together data from the Samaritans service with analysis of the wider literature on suicide in prisons. The report deepens out understanding of the reasons behind the high rate of suicide in prisons. (Samaritans, UK, 2019)

https://www.samaritans.org/documents/468/Samaritans_PrisonsDataReport_2019_Final.pdf

Opioid Use Disorder Treatment Decision Making And Care Navigation Upon Release From Prison: A Feasibility Study.

Banta-Green CJ, Floyd AS, Vick K, Arthur J, Hoeft TJ, Tsui JI.

Subst Abuse Rehabil. 2019 Oct 22;10:57-67. doi: 10.2147/SAR.S192045. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815213/

Europa. Status report on prison health in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; 2019. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 

Der Bericht enthält eine Analyse der erhobenen Daten zum Gesundheitsstatus von Häftlingen und den Gesundheitssystemen im Strafvollzug in 39 Ländern in der Europäischen Region der WHO.

https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/329943/9789289054584-eng.pdf

Mehr Suizidfälle in deutschen Haftanstalten

Berlin – Die Zahl der Suizidfälle in deutschen Haftanstalten hat zugenommen. Wie aus einer Antwort der Bundesregierung auf eine Anfrage der Linksfraktion hervorgeht, star­ben 2017 im Justizvollzug 173 Menschen, 82 von ihnen durch Selbsttötung. So viele Sui­zide in der Haft hat es seit 2005 nicht gegeben. Für 2018 gibt es noch keine bundesweite Übersicht. (aerzteblatt.de, 25.11.2019)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/107651/Mehr-Suizidfaelle-in-deutschen-Haftanstalten

Methadone treatment of arrestees: A randomized clinical trial.

Schwartz RP, Kelly SM, Mitchell SG, O'Grady KE, Sharma A, Jaffe JH.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Oct 28:107680. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107680. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31753737

Opioidabhängige Menschen in Haft: Am unteren Ende der Hierarchie

Dtsch Arztebl 2019; 116(47): A-2182 / B-1786 / C-1744

Bühring, Petra

Suchtkranke Menschen werden in Justizvollzugsanstalten häufig nicht adäquat gesundheitlich versorgt. Insbesondere Heroinabhängige erhalten selten eine Substitutionsbehandlung. Die Initiative „Gesundheit in Haft“ von Suchtmedizinern und anderen Experten will ihre Situation verbessern.

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/211009/Opioidabhaengige-Menschen-in-Haft-Am-unteren-Ende-der-Hierarchie

Europa. New WHO report: Ignoring the health of people in prisons now comes at a high cost for society later

The “WHO status report on prison health in the WHO European Region” presents an analysis of data collected on the health status of people in prison and prison health systems for 39 countries in the Region. The WHO survey collected data from Member States between 2016 and 2017 to enable monitoring and surveillance of health in prisons. (WHO Office for Europe, Kopenhagen, 21.11.2019)

http://www.euro.who.int/en/media-centre/sections/press-releases/2019/new-who-report-ignoring-the-health-of-people-in-prisons-now-comes-at-a-high-cost-for-society-later

Substitutionsbehandlung in Haft - Erfahrungen in NRW

Prof. Dr. Norbert Scherbaum

Ärztlicher Direktor LVR-Klinikum Essen. Kliniken und Institut der Universität Duisburg-Essen, Klinik für Abhängiges Verhalten und Suchtmedizin, Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

5. Nationale Substitutionskonferenz (NaSuKo), 27.9.19 Berlin

https://www.akzept.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/SubstHaftScherbaum.pdf

Substitutionsbehandlung nach Haftentlassung

Frank Woike – Beauftragter für Sucht und Suchtprävention der Stadt Hannover

5.Nationale Substitutionskonferenz (NaSuKo), 27.9.19 Berlin

https://www.akzept.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/SubstNachHaftWoike.pdf

Substance use characteristics, health risk practices and associated factors among people imprisoned in Catalonia: a cross-sectional study.

Bañuls-Oncina E, Clua-García R, Imbernón Casas M, Jiménez-Vinaja R.

Rev Esp Sanid Penit. 2019;21(2):80-87. PMID: 31642858

http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1575-06202019000200080&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Irland. Methadone usage at Cork Prison revealed 

ONE in seven inmates in Cork prison are on methadone.

According to figures released by Minister for Justice Charlie Flanagan, 41 inmates of the prison were on the drug on October 31.

There were 299 inmates in the prison on that date, meaning those on methadone represented 13.7% of the prison population. (echolive.ie, Irland, 09.11.2019)

https://www.echolive.ie/corknews/Methadone-usage-at-Cork-Prison-revealed-34e0f70b-5620-4c04-a18a-45f3e0904016-ds

USA. Mass. Has The First Jail In The Country That's Also A Licensed Methadone Treatment Provider

It's 7 a.m. in the library of the Franklin County Jail, and nurse Jennifer Maillet is preparing addiction medications for eight men.

She mixes methadone with water and crushes buprenorphine. She puts the medication in each man's mouth as correctional officers stand watch. Every five minutes, Maillet checks each mouth with a flashlight. After three checks the men are taken to a washroom to rinse their mouths, eat a Saltine cracker, rinse again, and wash their hands. (wbur.org, USA, 12.11.2019)

https://www.wbur.org/commonhealth/2019/11/12/franklin-county-jail-methadone

USA. Opioid Addiction In Jails: An Anthropologist's Perspective

Dr. Kimberly Sue is the medical director of the Harm Reduction Coalition, a national advocacy group that works to change U.S. policies and attitudes about the treatment of drug users. She's also a Harvard-trained anthropologist and a physician at the Rikers Island jail system in New York. (npr – National Public Radio, USA, 12.11.2019)

https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/11/12/777586941/opioid-addiction-in-jails-an-anthropologists-perspective

Clinician identified barriers to treatment for individuals in Appalachia with opioid use disorder following release from prison: a social ecological approach.

Bunting AM, Oser CB, Staton M, Eddens KS, Knudsen H.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2018 Dec 3;13(1):23. doi: 10.1186/s13722-018-0124-2.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278109/

Irland. Almost half of inmates at Dublin women's prison receiving methadone treatment

It is the largest proportion of prisoners undergoing opioid substitution treatment at any detention facility in the State. (DublinLive, 08.11.2019)

https://www.dublinlive.ie/news/dublin-news/almost-half-inmates-dublin-womens-17221609

USA. CASHING IN ON CRUELTY- Stories of death, abuse and neglect at the GEO immigration detention facility in Aurora

(…)

The Final Hours of Kamyar Samimi 

“On the first day of Mr. Samimi’s incarceration, GEO’s physician ordered that Mr. Samimi be cut off from the methadone he had been legally taking for 20 years, thus forcing Mr. Samimi to endure the all-consumingly painful, debilitating and life-threatening torture of opioid withdrawal,”… (ACLU - American Civil Liberties Union, Colorado, USA, Oktober 2019, Seite 25ff)

https://aclu-co.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/ACLU_CO_Cashing_In_On_Cruelty_09-17-19.pdf

Irland. More than 2,000 inmates receiving methadone treatment

The number of inmates on a methadone treatment programme across the prison system last year was the highest since 2012. (Irish Examiner, Irland, 16.10.2019)

https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/ireland/more-than-2000-inmates-receiving-methadone-treatment-957394.html

Optimising opioid substitution therapy in the prison environment.

Alam F, Wright N, Roberts P, Dhadley S, Townley J, Webster R.

Int J Prison Health. 2019 Dec 5;15(4):293-307. doi: 10.1108/IJPH-12-2017-0061.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31532339

Perceptions of extended-release naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine treatments following release from jail.

Velasquez M, Flannery M, Badolato R, Vittitow A, McDonald RD, Tofighi B, Garment AR, Giftos J, Lee JD.

Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2019 Oct 1;14(1):37. doi: 10.1186/s13722-019-0166

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771097/

Drogensubstitution. Die Freiburger JVA versorgt opiatsüchtige Häftlinge mit Ersatzmitteln 

Menschen im Gefängnis haben ein Anrecht auf eine Substitutionsbehandlung, findet ein Suchtexperte. Das Freiburger Modell ist ein Hoffnungsschimmer für Abhängige – und ein Risiko. Ein Besuch hinter Gittern. (Badische Zeitung, 04.10.2019, Registrierung erforderlich)

https://www.badische-zeitung.de/die-freiburger-jva-versorgt-opiatsuechtige-haeftlinge-mit-ersatzmitteln

Kanada. How a Misapplied Needle Exchange May Harm Incarcerated People

A needle exchange program in seven federal prisons in Canada is at the center of a heated debate between the nation’s correctional officers union and harm reduction advocates. Each side says that its constituents—correctional officers and incarcerated people who use drugs, respectively—are endangered by the program.

The Union of Canadian Correctional Officers claims, against the available evidence, that officers’ safety is jeopardized by incarcerated people accessing sterile syringes. Harm reductionists argue that instead, the program is currently failing those it’s meant to serve—and even putting them at increased risk. (Filter, USA, 02.10.2019)

https://filtermag.org/needle-exchange-canada-incarcerated-drug/

USA. The White Van Prescribing Buprenorphine Outside a Baltimore Jail

In 2017 the Behavioral Health Leadership Institute (BHLI), a Baltimore nonprofit, rented a truck. The large white GMC van sits outside of the Baltimore Central Booking and Intake Center Jail on 300 E Eager Street, four days a week.

The program, called Project Connections at Re-Entry (PCARE), takes a harm reduction approach—including prescribing buprenorphine. (Filter, USA, 25.09.2019)

https://filtermag.org/baltimore-harm-reduction-truck-jail/

USA. Use of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in Criminal Justice Settings. 

HHS Publication No. PEP19-MATUSECJS Rockville, MD: National Mental Health and Substance Use Policy Laboratory. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2019. 

https://store.samhsa.gov/product/Use-of-Medication-Assisted-Treatment-for-Opioid-Use-Disorder-in-Criminal-Justice-Settings/PEP19-MATUSECJS