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Drug injection within prison in Kyrgyzstan: elevated HIV risk and implications for scaling up opioid agonist treatments.

Azbel L, Wegman MP, Polonsky M, Bachireddy C, Meyer J, Shumskaya N, Kurmanalieva A, Dvoryak S, Altice FL.

Int J Prison Health. 2018 Sep 10;14(3):175-187. doi: 10.1108/IJPH-03-2017-0016.



Pakistan’s HIV Epidemic and the Need for Prison-Based Harm Reduction Programmes

Faryal Sajjad

GDPO Situation Analysis, October 2018


Initiating buprenorphine treatment prior to versus after release from prison: Arrest outcomes.

Gordon MS, Blue TR, Couvillion K, Schwartz RP, O'Grady KE, Fitzgerald TT, Vocci FJ.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 May 12;188:232-238. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.04.010. 



European evidence-based guidance on prevention and control of HCV in prison settings (poster)


In the 31 EU/EEA countries, more than 590 000 persons are held in a custodial facility on any given day. According to recent reviews of prison studies from EU countries, prison prevalence estimates for HCV ranged from 4.3 % to 86.3 %.

People in prison also tend to have multiple complex health and social care needs resulting from a mix  of specific socio-economic determinants and environmental factors. A significant proportion of people in prison have a history of drug use, and a strong association has been found between prison history and HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs.

Prisons are settings of increased risk for HCV transmission, while representing a unique opportunity to address the healthcare needs of those people in prison who belong to hard-to-reach and medically underserved groups in the community, such as people who inject drugs. (EMCDDA,ECDC,Lisasbon,September 2018)


EMCDDA. Public health guidance on active case finding of communicable diseases in prison settings


What are the most (cost-) effective ways to prevent and control communicable diseases in prison settings? In their joint public health Guidance, ECDC and the EMCDDA, present the evidence on active case finding as a key measure to diagnose communicable diseases early. The two agencies advise to actively offer testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV to all people in prison and to conduct universal testing for tuberculosis at prison entry. (EMCDDA,ECDC,Lissabon,Mai 2018)


USA. Law And Order: How the Smallest State is Defeating America’s Biggest Addiction Crisis 

Rhode Island inmates get opioid replacements while they’re locked up and it seems to be keeping them from overdosing when they get out. (Politico Magazine, USA, 25.08.2018)



HCV: Elimination von Hepatitis C Infektionen in Gefängnissen – Ziele vs. Realität

Stöver, H. und Keppler, K.

Praxis Report, Heft 5, 10.Jahrgang, Mai 2018


Ethics and evidence on naltrexone treatment of offenders

Drugs&Alcohol Findings, UK, 2018

Global Prison Trends 2018

(Penal Reform International and Thailand Institute of Justice Global Prison Trends 2018) 


Treating HCV in a Captive Audience: Eradication Efforts in the Prison Microenvironment.

Redman JS, Sterling RK.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jul 24. doi: 10.1038/s41395-018-0201-x. 


Kanada. Canada to test first needle exchange program in a North American prison 

Program aims to stop the spread of infections such as HIV, Aids and hepatitis C among inmates who are drug users. (The Guardian, UK, 15.05.2018)


EU-Behörden fordern bessere Präventionund Behandlung von Infektionen in Gefängnissen

Stockholm – Gefängnisse sind auch in Europa Brutstätten für gefährliche Krankheits­erreger. Zwei EU-Behörden fordern anlässlich der internationalen Aids-Konferenz (AIDS 2018) und des bevorstehenden Welt-Hepatitis-Tags am 28. Juli eine Intensivierung der Behandlung und Präventionvon bestimmten Infektionskrankheiten – auch weil die Insassen nach ihrer Entlassung die Ausbreitung in der Allgemeinbevölkerung fördern könnten. (aerzteblatt.de, 26.07.2018)


Harm reduction and viral hepatitis C in European prisons: a cross-sectional survey of 25 countries

Rob Bielen,Samya R. Stumo,Rachel Halford,Klára Werling,Tatjana Reic,Heino Stöver,Geert Robaeys†and Jeffrey V. Lazarus†(Contributed equall)y

Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:25, doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0230-1


Acceptability of prison-based take-home naloxone programmes among a cohort of incarcerated men with a history of regular injecting drug use

Michael Curtis, Paul Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Amy Kirwan, Stuart A. Kinner, Tony Butler and Mark Stoové

Harm Reduction Journal 2018, 15:48, doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0255-5


Health Outcomes for Clients of Needle and Syringe Programs in Prisons.

Lazarus JV, Safreed-Harmon K, Hetherington KL, Bromberg DJ, Ocampo D, Graf N, Dichtl A, Stöver H, Wolff H.

Epidemiol Rev. 2018 Apr 12. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxx019.



USA. Rehabilitation Plus Rehab? Jails Dispense Drugs To Treat Inmates’ Addictions

At a time when the U.S. government is trying to deal with a nationwide opioid epidemic, many jails across the country are only now rolling out medicines to help inmates overcome addiction. And most of those jails dispense only one of the drugs currently available. (KHN – Kaiser Health News, 19.08.2018)


Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among prisoners in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Masoud Behzadifar,Hasan Abolghasem Gorji, Aziz Rezapourand Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

Harm Reduction Journal 2018 15:24, doi.org/10.1186/s12954-018-0231-0


Public health guidance on prevention and control of blood-borne viruses in prison settings

ECDC, EMCDDA,Lissabon,July 2018


HIV and Viral Hepatitis Among Imprisoned Key Populations.

Wirtz AL, Yeh PT, Flath NL, Beyrer C, Dolan K.

Epidemiol Rev. 2018 Apr 21. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxy003.



High drug related mortality rates following prison release: Assessing the acceptance likelihood of a naltrexone injection and related concerns.

Murphy PN, Mohammed F, Wareing M, Cotton A, McNeill J, Irving P, Jones S, Sharples L, Monk R, Elton P.

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018 Sep;92:91-98. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2018.07.002.



Dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder and injury in adults recently released from prison: a prospective cohort study

Young, Jesse T et al.

The Lancet Public Health , Volume 0 , Issue 0 , Published: 18 April 2018 , doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30052-5


UK. High risk strategy - Failure to provide naloxone at the point of release for most prisoners is putting lives at risk, says John Jolly.

Those leaving prison having had an opiate problem are seriously at risk of having a life-threatening overdose or dying as a result of one. Both Public Health England (PHE) and the government have been clear in their recommendation that all local areas need to have appropriate naloxone provision in place. However, prisons have so far failed to implement provision at the point of release across much of the estate, and this is putting lives at risk. (DDN – Drink and Drugs News, UK, 09.07.2018)


Conclusions of the WHO international meeting on prisons and health, Lisbon 2017

Drugs and drug-related harms continue to challenge prison systems in Europe and interventions in this setting must be driven by evidence gathered through monitoring, data-collection and research. The remarks come in conclusions published by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO–Europe), in collaboration with Public Health England and the EMCDDA. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, 13.04.2018)


Naloxone-on-Release - Guidelines for naloxone provision upon release from custodial settings.

(...) The project, led by the Frankfurt University of Applied Science, received funding from the European Union for the period 2017-2018. It aims at addressing the gaps in the continuity of care for long-term drug users in prison and upon release, by supporting life-saving interventions for the prevention of overdoses and reduction of other risks related to drug use and for the establishment of a treatment path, which does not get interrupted upon release.

(Frankfurt University of Applied Science und ISFF – Institut für Suchtforschung Frankfurt, 2018)


Longitudinal injecting risk behaviours among people with a history of injecting drug use in an Australian prison setting: The HITS-p study

Cunningham, Evan B. et al.

International Journal of Drug Policy , Volume 54 , 18 - 25


“My first 48 hours out” – comprehensive approaches to pre and post prison release interventions for drug users in the criminal justice system” 

For prisoners with a history of drug use, in particular opioid use, the risks related to drug use, in particular overdose and death are extremely high in the immediate period after release due to high rates of relapse and lower opioid tolerance. Much still needs to be done in order to ensure that people with a severe history of drug use are sufficiently cared for, when released from prisons. Harm reduction measures need to be in place for ex-prisoners to be able to readjust to freedom without relapsing back into drug use and extreme risk of fatal overdose when released.


Methadone Versus Torture: The Perspective of the European Court of Human Rights

Junod V., Wolff H., Scholten W., Novet B., Greifinger R., Dickson C., and Simon O.

Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems 20(1):31-36 · February 2018


Naloxone. "My first 48 hours out“ - Comprehensive approaches to pre and post prison release interventions for drug users in the criminal justice system

Projektbeschreibung: For prisoners with a history of drug use, in particular opioid use, the risks related to drug use, in particular overdose and death are extremely high in the immediate period after release due to high rates of relapse and lower opioid tolerance (Farrell and Marsden, 2008). Much still needs to be done in order to ensure that people with a severe history of drug use are sufficiently cared for, when released from prisons. Harm reduction measures need to be in place for ex-prisoners to be able to readjust to freedom without relapsing back into drug use and extreme risk of fatal overdose when released. 

The immediate time after release (“my first 48 hours out”) is a critical time for action, when the cooperation between prisons, healthcare providers and NGOs is key in ensuring continuity of care and where targeted interventions can save lives from overdose and build a path towards engagement into further treatment and rehabilitation for drug users. (Frankfurt University for Applied Sciences, o.D.)


Systematic review of qualitative evaluations of reentry programs addressing problematic drug use and mental health disorders amongst people transitioning from prison to communities

Sacha Kendall, Sarah Redshaw, Stephen Ward, Sarah Wayland and Elizabeth Sullivan

Health & Justice2018, 6:4, doi.org/10.1186/s40352-018-0063-8


Große Unterschiede bei HIV- und HCV-Behandlung sowie Opioid-Substitutions-Therapie unter Gefangenen in Deutschland

Erstmals gibt es eine Studie, die aus Sekundärdaten die Arzneimittelversorgung von Inhaftierten mit einer HIV-, HCV-Infektion oder Opioidabhängigkeit in Justizvollzugsanstalten (JVAen) in verschiedenen Bundesländern beschreibt und bewertet. Das Ergebnis: Die Behandlung dieser Krankheiten in JVAen wird zwar leitliniengerecht durchgeführt, aber zum Teil große Unterschiede zeigten sich beim Anteil der Behandelten pro JVA-Population für die untersuchten Krankheiten und zwischen den Bundesländern.

(Deutschsprachige Kurzfassung der Publikation Müller J. et al.: High variability of TB, HIV, hepatitis C treatment and opioid substitution therapy among prisoners in Germany. BMC Public Health 2017; 17(1): 843. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4840-4)


Physician prescribing of opioid agonist treatments in provincial correctional facilities in Ontario, Canada: A survey.

Kouyoumdjian FG, Patel A, To MJ, Kiefer L, Regenstreif L (2018)

PLoS ONE 13(2): e0192431. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192431


EMCDDA. New psychoactive substances in prison (Video)

The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) among prisoners appears to be a rapidly developing phenomenon. But empirical data are currently scarce and patchy. A recent study suggests that synthetic cannabinoids are the most common group of NPS used in prison. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, 07.06.2018, Video, 01:37)


Age-Specific Global Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Tuberculosis Among Incarcerated People: A Systematic Review.

Kinner SA, Snow K, Wirtz AL, Altice FL, Beyrer C, Dolan K.

J Adolesc Health. 2018 Mar;62(3S):S18-S26. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.09.030.


EMCDDA. New psychoactive substances in prison 

Rapid Communication, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2018


Substitutionsbehandlung im Strafvollzug - Ein praktischer Leitfaden

Jörg Pont, Andrej Kastelic, Heino Stöver, Catherine Ritter, Bärbel Knorr

DAH – Deutsche AIDS-Hilfe, 2018


Both localized and systemic bacterial infections are predicted by injection drug use: A prospective follow-up study in Swedish criminal justice clients.

Dahlman D, Berge J, Björkman P, Nilsson AC, Håkansson A (2018) 

PLoS ONE 13(5): e0196944. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196944