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Cannabis and Psychosis: Recent Epidemiological Findings Continuing the “Causality Debate”

Suhas Ganesh and Deepak Cyril D’Souza

American Journal of Psychiatry 2022 179:1, 8-10 

https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2021.21111126

Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG) for reducing health harms from non-medical cannabis use: A comprehensive evidence and recommendations update. 

Fischer B, Robinson T, Bullen C, Curran V, Jutras-Aswad D, Medina-Mora ME, Pacula RL, Rehm J, Room R, Brink WVD, Hall W. 

Int J Drug Policy. 2021 Aug 28:103381. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2021.103381. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34465496.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955395921002863

Cannabis may contain heavy metals and affect consumer health, study finds

Research team proposes strategies for growers to avoid heavy metals in their cannabis crops. (Penn State University, USA, 14.12.2021)

https://www.psu.edu/news/research/story/cannabis-may-contain-heavy-metals-and-affect-consumer-health-study-finds/

Systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies of cannabis use in adolescence and emerging adulthood: evidence from 90 studies and 9441 participants. 

Lichenstein, S.D., Manco, N., Cope, L.M. et al.

Neuropsychopharmacol. (2021). doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01226-9

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-021-01226-9

Cannabinoid Metabolites as Inhibitors of Major Hepatic CYP450 Enzymes, with Implications for Cannabis-Drug Interactions

Shamema Nasrin, Christy J.W. Watson, Yadira X Perez-Paramo and Philip Lazarus

Drug Metabolism and Disposition December 2021, 49 (12) 1070-1080; DOI: doi.org/10.1124/dmd.121.000442 

https://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/49/12/1070

Inhibition of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes by Major Cannabinoids and Their Metabolites

Shamema Nasrin, Christy J. W. Watson, Keti Bardhi, Gabriela Fort, Gang Chen and Philip Lazarus

Drug Metabolism and Disposition December 2021, 49 (12) 1081-1089; DOI: doi.org/10.1124/dmd.121.000530 

https://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/49/12/1081

Legalisierung von Cannabis: Risiken für die Gesundheit

Dtsch Arztebl 2021; 118(49): A-2326 / B-1909

Bühring, Petra

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/archiv/222411

The Cannabis-Dependent Relationship Between Methadone Treatment Dose and Illicit Opioid Use in a Community-Based Cohort of People Who Use Drugs. 

Lake S, Kerr T, Buxton J, Walsh Z, Cooper ZD, Socías ME, Fairbairn N, Hayashi K, Milloy MJ. 

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2021 Nov 22. doi: 10.1089/can.2021.0080. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34813374.

Abstract 

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2021.0080

Mu-opioid antagonism in the treatment of cannabis use disorder. 

Kebir O, Laqueille X, Mouaffak F. 

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2020 Mar 1;45(2):143. doi: 10.1503/jpn.190182. PMID: 32096619; PMCID: PMC7828912. 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828912/

Driving under the influence: a multi-center evaluation of vehicular crashes in the era of cannabis legalization. 

Borst JM, Costantini TW, Reilly L, Smith AM, Stabley R, Steele J, Wintz D, Bansal V, Biffl WL, Godat LN. 

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2021 Nov 11;6(1):e000736. doi: 10.1136/tsaco-2021-000736. PMID: 34786487; PMCID: PMC8587622.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8587622/

Recent cannabis use linked to extremes of nightly sleep duration 

Pattern even more pronounced among heavy users (20 out of preceding 30 days). American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), USA, 06.12.2021)

https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/936735

Synthetische Cannabinoide: Von der Medizin zum Rauschmittel

Synthetische Cannabinoide wurden ursprünglich in der medizinischen Forschung entwickelt. Herausgekommen sind Substanzen, die teils um ein Vielfaches stärker wirken als natürlicher Cannabis. Der Gebrauch als Rauschmittel kann lebensgefährliche Folgen haben. (drugcom.de, Topthema Dezember 2021)

https://www.drugcom.de/newsuebersicht/topthemen/synthetische-cannabinoide-von-der-medizin-zum-rauschmittel/

Identification of a New Family of Prenylated Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Cannabis Revealed by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography

Iain W. H. Oswald, Marcos A. Ojeda, Ryan J. Pobanz, Kevin A. Koby, Anthony J. Buchanan, Josh Del Rosso, Mario A. Guzman, and Thomas J. Martin

ACS Omega 2021, 6, 47, 31667–31676, Publication Date: November 12, 2021, doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c04196

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.1c04196

Niederlande. Gemiddelde THC-gehaltes hasj en wiet stabiel, maar spreiding is groot

De gemiddelde THC-gehaltes van wiet en hasj uit Nederlandse coffeeshops wijken dit jaar niet significant af van die van vorig jaar. De spreiding van CBD- en THC-gehaltes in met name nederwiet is wel erg groot. Dit blijkt uit de 22e THC-monitor van het Trimbos-instituut. (Trimbos-instituut, Niederlande, 16.11.2021)

https://www.trimbos.nl/actueel/nieuws/bericht/gemiddelde-thc-gehaltes-hasj-en-wiet-stabiel-maar-spreiding-is-groot

198 Neuropsychiatric Effects of Cannabis Toxicity in the Emergency Department: A Community-Based Study

Leach, E. et al.

Annals of Emergency Medicine, Volume 78, Issue 4, S79 - S80 

Abstract

https://www.annemergmed.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0196-0644%2821%2901050-7

Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects of Phytocannabinoids and Recreational Synthetic Cannabinoids: Increasing Risk of Public Health. 

Bukke VN, Archana M, Villani R, Serviddio G, Cassano T. 

Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Sep 24;14(10):965. doi: 10.3390/ph14100965. PMID: 34681189; PMCID: PMC8541640.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541640/

USA. Car crash deaths involving cannabis increasing and more likely to involve alcohol 

New research indicates that between 2000 and 2018, the percentage of car crash deaths in the United States involving cannabis have doubled, and the percentage of deaths involving both cannabis and alcohol, have more than doubled. Researchers from Boston Medical Center, Boston University, and University of Victoria found people who died in crashes involving cannabis had 50 percent greater odds of also having alcohol in their system. Published in the American Journal of Public Health, these results suggest that as states have loosened cannabis policies, cannabis and alcohol have increasingly been used together when driving. (Boston Medical Center, USA, 29.10.2021)

https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/933225

EMCDDA. Cannabis: health and social responses

Introduction

This miniguide is one of a larger set, which together comprise Health and social responses to drug problems: a European guide 2021. The guide supports practitioners and policymakers in tackling the negative consequences of drug use. This cannabis miniguide provides an overview of the most important aspects to consider when planning or delivering health and social responses to cannabis-related problems, and reviews the availability and effectiveness of the responses. It also considers implications for policy and practice. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, 19.10.2021)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/mini-guides/cannabis-health-and-social-responses_en

EMCDDA. Spotlight on… Synthetic cannabinoids 

What are synthetic cannabinoids?

Synthetic cannabinoids (or synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists) is the name given to a diverse range of substances that act on the same brain receptors as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, 21.10.2021)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/spotlights/synthetic-cannabinoids_en

CDC. Marijuana and Public Health

Themenseite, CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA

https://www.cdc.gov/marijuana/index.htm

Cannabis und Psychose: Wird der Zusammenhang überschätzt?

Kann Kiffen eine länger anhaltende Psychose auslösen? Die Ergebnisse einer aktuellen US-amerikanischen Studie mit Zwillingen legt nahe, dass eher andere Faktoren verantwortlich sind. (drugcom.de, 20.10.2021)

https://www.drugcom.de/news/cannabis-und-psychose-wird-der-zusammenhang-ueberschaetzt/

EMCDDA. EMCDDA Webinar: Health and social responses to cannabis problems in Europe — time for a paradigm shift? (Video)

Recording of the EMCDDA webinar 'Health and social responses to cannabis problems in Europe — time for a paradigm shift?' from 8 October 2021.

- Cannabis use and harms: Jakob Manthey, Ph.D., Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden and Center for Interdisciplinary Addiction Research (ZIS), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Germany - Cannabis treatment: Eva Hoch, university lecturer and lead psychologist at the Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany - Cannabis and social implications: Marie Jauffret- Roustide, Research Fellow INSERM - National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Paris, France Chairpersons: Jane Mounteney, Marica Ferri, EMCDDA Opening and closing remarks: Alexis Goosdeel, EMCDDA Director

(EMCDDA, Lissabon, 08.10.2021, Video, 01:33:31)

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/media-library/emcdda-webinar-health-and-social-responses-cannabis-problems-europe-time-paradigm-shift_en

International research shows: No genetic distinction between ‘Sativa’ and ‘Indica’ cannabis

The cannabis industry needs to look more critically at its own disclosures. According to researchers at Canada’s Dalhousie University and the Wageningen University & Research, the Indica and Sativa labels on cannabis are often wrong and misleading. Patients and consumers would benefit from a more scientific approach. The researchers analysed hundreds of cannabis samples. The study shows that the genetic and chemical composition of the cannabis tested often does not correspond to the typical cannabis label Indica or Sativa. (Bedrocan, Niederlande, 14.10.2021)

https://bedrocan.com/international-research-shows-no-genetic-distinction-between-sativa-and-indica-cannabis/

The International Cannabis Toolkit (iCannToolkit): a multidisciplinary expert consensus on minimum standards for measuring cannabis use, 

Lorenzetti, V., Hindocha, C., Petrilli, K., Griffiths, P., Brown, J., Castillo-Carniglia, Á., Caulkins, J. P., Englund, A., ElSohly, M. A., Gage, S. H., Groshkova, T., Gual, A., Hammond, D., Lawn, W., López-Pelayo, H., Manthey, J., Mokrysz, C., Liccardo Pacula, R., van Laar, M., Vandrey, R., Wadsworth, E., Winstock, A., Hall, W., Curran, H. V., and Freeman, T. P. (2021) 

Addiction. doi.org/10.1111/add.15702.

Abstract

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.15702

‘Synthetic cannabis’: A dangerous misnomer

The term ‘synthetic cannabis’ (or ‘synthetic marijuana’) has been widely used. The term, however, is wrong. This may sound like a pedantic point, but the misnaming of these drugs has potentially dangerous consequences. In a recent article in the International Journal of Drug Policy we proposed that they be referred to as synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs), to emphasise that this is a drug class entirely distinct from marijuana. (Professor Shane Darke in: NDARC - UNSW MEDICINE - National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, Australien, 05.10.2021) 

https://ndarc.med.unsw.edu.au/blog/synthetic-cannabis-dangerous-misnomer

Public health monitoring of cannabis use in Europe: prevalence of use, cannabis potency, and treatment rates

Jakob Manthey, Tom P Freeman, Carolin Kilian, Hugo López-Pelayo, Jürgen Rehm

The Lancet Regional Health – Europe, Available online 24 September 2021, 100227, doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100227

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666776221002131

Double-Edged Leaf: Cannabis and Climate Change

(…) On the one hand, hemp farming can be a powerful weapon to help ameliorate the effects of carbon emissions. On the other hand, industrial cannabis production has a formidable and growing carbon footprint. With the ongoing legalization of the plant and the expansion of its impact on the American economy, it is worth exploring how cannabis might be both a potential cure for and a contributor to climate change—and considering whether the plant can be more beneficial than harmful in this regard. (Points: Joint Blog of the Alcohol & Drugs History Society and the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, USA, 07.09.2021)

https://pointshistory.com/2021/09/07/cannabis-and-climate-change/

EMCDDA. New report highlights public health and social risks posed by synthetic cannabinoids in Europe 

Synthetic cannabinoids come under the spotlight today in a new report released by the EU drugs agency (EMCDDA). Widely available across Europe and highly potent, these substances are placing some users at a ‘high risk of poisoning’, the agency warns. (EMCDDA, Lissabon, 09.09.2021) 

https://www.emcdda.europa.eu/news/2021/new-report-highlights-public-health-and-social-risks-posed-synthetic-cannabinoids-europe_en

Association of Marijuana Legalization With Marijuana Use Among US High School Students, 1993-2019. 

Anderson DM, Rees DI, Sabia JJ, Safford S. 

JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124638. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24638. PMID: 34491352.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2783850

Cannabis bleibt beliebteste Droge in Deutschland

Berlin – Cannabis ist nach offiziellen Angaben die beliebteste illegale Droge hierzulande. „Cannabis ist weiter die in Deutschland am meisten gehandelte und konsumierte Drogenart“, sagte der Präsident des Bundeskriminalamts, Holger Münch, in Berlin bei der Vorstellung des Lageberichts zur Rauschgiftkriminalität 2020. (aerzteblatt.de, 27.07.2021)

https://www.aerzteblatt.de/nachrichten/125918/Cannabis-bleibt-beliebteste-Droge-in-Deutschland