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Adverse Childhood Experiences Predict Early Initiation of Opioid Use Behaviors. 

Guarino H, Mateu-Gelabert P, Quinn K, Sirikantraporn S, Ruggles KV, Syckes C, Goodbody E, Jessell L, Friedman SR. 

Front Sociol. 2021 May 13;6:620395. doi: 10.3389/fsoc.2021.620395. PMID: 34055961; PMCID: PMC8158934.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158934/