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In utero exposure to norbuprenorphine, a major metabolite of buprenorphine, induces fetal opioid dependence and leads to neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

Griffin BA, Caperton CO, Russell LN, Cabalong CV, Wilson CD, Urquhart KR, Martins BS, Zita MD, Patton AL, Alund AW, Owens SM, Fantegrossi WE, Moran JH, Brents LK.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019 Apr 26. pii: jpet.118.254219. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.254219.

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/jpet/early/2019/04/25/jpet.118.254219.full.pdf