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Schriftliche Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Birgit Stöver (CDU) vom 03.02.2017 und Antwort des Senats - Drucksache 21/7834 - 10. Februar 2017

http://www.cdu-hamburg.de/fileadmin/content/Dokumente/SKA/Drogentote_2016_in_Hamburg.pdf

Erstmals seit 2011 ist die Anzahl der drogenbezogenen Todesfälle 2015 wieder gestiegen, jedoch nicht in dem Ausmaß wie die Jahre zuvor.

Erstmals seit Jahren gibt es in Österreich wieder einen Anstieg bei den Drogentoten. Das geht aus dem aktuellen Bericht der Gesundheit Österreich GmbH (GÖG) hervor. Demnach starben im Berichtszeitraum 2015 insgesamt 153 Menschen aufgrund von akuten Intoxikationen („Überdosierung“) nach dem Konsum von Suchtmitteln gestorben. Im Jahr zuvor waren es 122 Menschen. Bei den meisten dieser Fällen waren Opiode (Heroin bzw. suchtgifthaltige Medikamente) im Spiel. Doch auch unerwartet hoch dosierte Ecstasy Tabletten haben 2015 zu einigen Todesfällen geführt. (praevention.at, 31.01.2017)

http://www.praevention.at/news/news-detail/article/drogenbericht-2016-anzahl-der-todesopfer-gestiegen.html

Mortality related to methadone maintenance treatment in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2006-2013.

Ledberg A.

J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 Mar;74:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.12.005.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28132698

Impact of treatment for opioid dependence on fatal drug-related poisoning: a national cohort study in England.

Pierce M, Bird SM, Hickman M, Marsden J, Dunn G, Jones A, Millar T.

Addiction. 2016 Feb;111(2):298-308. doi: 10.1111/add.13193.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4950033/

USA. Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014

Rose A. Rudd, MSPH1; Noah Aleshire, JD1; Jon E. Zibbell, PhD1; R. Matthew Gladden, PhD1

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)

January 1, 2016 / 64(50);1378-82

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6450a3.htm

Experience of drug overdose at an urban addiction clinic in Ireland

Barry T., Crowley D., Benton A., Barron E., and O'Reilly F.

Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, Published Ahead of Print, January 2, 2017

http://www.heroinaddictionrelatedclinicalproblems.org/harcp-archives-doi-articles.php

Sudden Cardiac Death of a Body Packer Due to Cocaine Cardiotoxicity.

Pramanik P, Vidua RK.

Clin Med Insights Pathol. 2016 Nov 24;9:33-35.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123768/

Development of a proto-typology of opiate overdose onset.

Neale, J., Bradford, J., and Strang, J. (2017)

Addiction, 112: 168–175. doi: 10.1111/add.13589.

Abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/add.13589/abstract

Whether intentional or not, cocaine’s mix with opioids is driving up related deaths. (U.S. News & World Report, 03.01.2017)

http://www.usnews.com/news/health-care-news/articles/2017-01-03/as-the-opioid-epidemic-evolves-impacts-bleed-into-cocaine-overdose

USA. Increases in Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths — United States, 2010–2015.

Rudd RA, Seth P, David F, Scholl L. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 16 December 2016. DOI: doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm655051e1

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm655051e1.htm

Drug deaths from fentanyl and other synthetic opioids rose 72 percent from 2014 to 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report. (drugfree.org, 22.12.2016)

http://www.drugfree.org/news-service/deaths-fentanyl-synthetic-opioids-rose-72-one-year/

Lisa Lapointe, B.C.'s chief coroner, says 128 people died last month, an average of 4 a day. (CBC News, British Columbia, 20.12.2016)

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/drug-overdose-bc-november-1.3903256

USA. Drugs Most Frequently Involved in Drug Overdose Deaths: United States, 2010–2014

Margaret Warner, Ph.D., National Center for Health Statistics; James P. Trinidad, M.P.H., M.S., U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Brigham A. Bastian, B.S., Arialdi M. Miniño, M.P.H., and Holly Hedegaard, M.D., M.S.P.H., National Center for Health Statistics

National Vital Statistics Reports

Volume 65, Number 10 December 20, 2016

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr65/nvsr65_10.pdf

The latest chart of overdose deaths in Massachusetts shows a climbing blue line labeled “fentanyl.” (californiahealthline.org, 08.12.2016)

http://californiahealthline.org/news/delivered-like-a-pizza-why-killer-drug-fentanyl-is-so-hard-to-stop/

Mehr als 52.000 US-Bürger sind vergangenes Jahr in Folge einer Überdosis gestorben. Die vielen Drogentoten tragen dazu bei, dass die Lebenserwartung in dem Land sinkt. (spiegel online, 09.12.2016)

http://www.spiegel.de/gesundheit/diagnose/drogen-in-den-usa-immer-mehr-menschen-sterben-an-ueberdosis-a-1125119.html

Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study

Just J, Bleckwenn M, Schnakenberg R, Skatulla P, Weckbecker K

Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2016, 11 :40 (9 December 2016)

http://substanceabusepolicy.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13011-016-0084-z

Death matters: understanding heroin/opiate overdose risk and testing potential to prevent deaths.

Strang J.

Addiction. 2015 Jul;110 Suppl 2:27-35. doi: 10.1111/add.12904.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042565

Methadone-related deaths. A ten year overview.

Vignali C, Stramesi C, Morini L, Pozzi F, Groppi A.

Forensic Sci Int. 2015 Dec;257:172-6. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.08.017.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26360592

WASHINGTON, May 3, 2016  /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The over-the-counter anti-diarrhea medication Imodium®, or its key ingredient loperamide, is increasingly being abused by people attempting to self-treat their opioid addiction, with sometime fatal results. Two case studies outlining the phenomenon were published online Friday in Annals of Emergency Medicine ("Loperamide Abuse Associated with Cardiac Dysrhythmia and Death").

"Loperamide's accessibility, low cost, over-the-counter legal status and lack of social stigma all contribute to its potential for abuse," said lead study author William Eggleston, PharmD, of the Upstate New York Poison Center, in Syracuse, New York. "People looking for either self-treatment of withdrawal symptoms or euphoria are overdosing on loperamide with sometimes deadly consequences. Loperamide is safe in therapeutic doses but extremely dangerous in high doses."

The paper outlines two case studies of patients with histories of substance abuse who attempted to self-treat opioid addictions with massive doses of loperamide. Both patients overdosed and emergency medical services were called.  The patients were treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, naloxone and standard Advanced Cardiac Life Support. Both patients died. (American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), 03.05.2016)

http://newsroom.acep.org/2016-05-03-Imodium-for-a-Legal-High-Is-As-Dumb-and-Dangerous-as-It-Sounds

Leece P, Cavacuiti C, Macdonald EM, Gomes T, Kahan M, Srivastava A, Steele L, Luo J, Mamdani MM, Juurlink DN; Canadian Drug Safety and Effectiveness Research Network. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2015 Oct;57:30-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2015.04.008. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

http://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(15)00089-6/pdf

People aged 30-59 accounted for 78% of all drug overdose deaths in 2014, with many more men overdosing than women. (The Guardian, 29.08.2016)

https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/aug/29/middle-aged-men-at-highest-risk-of-dying-from-drug-overdose-report-finds