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Oxytocin protocol appears workable and safe for methadone patients who use cocaine

Some 30 to 60 percent of patients in methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for opioid use disorders use cocaine. Compared to other MMT patients, those who use cocaine have higher rates of relapse and mortality. Studies with animals have suggested that the hormone oxytocin could be doubly helpful to these patients, by reducing the addictive effects of both opioids and cocaine. Now, researchers supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse have developed a protocol for adjunctive oxytocin treatment, and a pilot study has indicated that it is workable and safe for MMT patients. (NIDA, Science Highlight, 09.01.2018)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/latest-science/oxytocin-protocol-appears-workable-safe-methadone-patients-who-use-cocaine

Why Females Are More Sensitive to Cocaine

This research:

Examined why females are more sensitive than males to the rewarding and motivational effects of stimulant drugs.

Demonstrated that the female hormone estradiol is responsible for the increased sensitivity.

Identified two signaling pathways—mGluR5 and the cannabinoid CB1R pathways—through which estradiol mediates enhanced escalation of drug administration and greater euphoria in females. (NIDA Notes, 03.08.2017)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2017/08/why-females-are-more-sensitive-to-cocaine

Authorities in the northern Spanish city of Bilbao are distributing cards for people to crush cocaine with prior to snorting, in a bid to reduce the potential harms of nasal drug use – including the spread of hepatitis C. (Talking Drugs, UK, 12.09.2017)

http://www.talkingdrugs.org/spanish-authorities-providing-free-cocaine-crushing-cards

Cebranopadol, a Mixed Opioid Agonist, Reduces Cocaine Self-administration through Nociceptin Opioid and Mu Opioid Receptors.

Shen Q, Deng Y, Ciccocioppo R, Cannella N.

Front Psychiatry. 2017 Nov 13;8:234. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00234.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693905/

Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.

Konova, A. B., Parvaz, M. A., Bernstein, V., Zilverstand, A., Moeller, S. J., Delgado, M. R., Alia-Klein, N., and Goldstein, R. Z. (2017)

Addiction Biology, doi: 10.1111/adb.12545.

Abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/adb.12545/abstract

Neural mechanisms of extinguishing drug and pleasant cue associations in human addiction: role of the VMPFC.

Konova AB, Parvaz MA, Bernstein V, Zilverstand A, Moeller SJ, Delgado MR, Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ.

Addict Biol. 2017 Sep 5. doi: 10.1111/adb.12545.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28872745

Cocaine-addicted individuals say they find the drug much less enjoyable after years of use, but they have great difficulty quitting. A new brain imaging study led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai reveals why this might be so, as well as why a common psychological therapy may not work in addicted cocaine users. (The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 11.09.2017)

https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-09/tmsh-cu091117.php

NASHVILLE — For the first time, Tennessee Bureau of Investigation scientists have detected fentanyl, a potentially deadly narcotic, mixed in with samples of cocaine. (USA Today, 20.10.2017)

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2017/10/20/why-cocaine-cut-fentanyl-changes-game/786295001/

"I love having benzos after my coke shot": The use of psychotropic medication among cocaine users in downtown Montreal.

Motta-Ochoa R, Bertrand K, Arruda N, Jutras-Aswad D, Roy É.

Int J Drug Policy. 2017 Aug 18;49:15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.07.012.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28826127

Persons addicted to cocaine often find that the drug is much less enjoyable after years of use, yet they have great difficulty quitting. A new brain imaging study shows why this may be so and also why extinction-based therapy may not be effective for cocaine users.

The study, led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, found that in long-term cocaine users, there is global impairment in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), an area of the brain that is linked to impulse and self-control. (Medscape, 15.09.2017)

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/885727

Cocaine adulteration.

Kudlacek O, Hofmaier T, Luf A, Mayer FP, Stockner T, Nagy C, Holy M, Freissmuth M, Schmid R, Sitte HH.

J Chem Neuroanat. 2017 Jun 12. pii: S0891-0618(17)30003-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2017.06.001.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28619473

Buprenorphine requires concomitant activation of NOP and MOP receptors to reduce cocaine consumption.

Kallupi M, Shen Q, de Guglielmo G, Yasuda D, Journigan VB, Zaveri NT, Ciccocioppo R.

Addict Biol. 2017 Jun 21. doi: 10.1111/adb.12513.

Abstract

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635181

Risk behaviors for sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.

Guimarães RA, da Silva LN, França DD, Del-Rios NH, Carneiro MA, Teles SA.

Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):628-34. doi: 10.1590/0104-1169.0077.2597.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4623725/

In 2016, 37 percent of overdose deaths involved cocaine and fentanyl without heroin, up from 11 percent in 2015

Last year more than 1,300 New Yorkers died of a drug overdose, and nearly half (44 percent) of those deaths involved fentanyl. (New York City Health Department, 01.06.2017)

https://www.drugabuse.gov/emerging-trends/new-york-city-issues-health-advisory-about-overdoses-fentanyl-added-to-cocaine

Assessment of inhibitory control in crack and/or cocaine users: a systematic review.

Czermainski FR, Willhelm AR, Santos ÁZ, Pachado MP, de Almeida RMM.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother. 2017 Aug 14:0. doi: 10.1590/2237-6089-2016-0043.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2237-60892017005004101